Governor Generals of India
Governor Generals of British India
Warren Hastings Plan 1772 – 1785 :
- Brought the Dual Govt, of Bengal to an end by the Regulating Act, 1773.
- Deprived zamindars of their judicial powers and Civil and Criminal courts were established.
- Maintenance of records was made compulsory.
- The First Anglo – Maratha War (1776 – 82), which ended with the Treaty of Salbai (1782), and the Second Anglo – Mysore War (1780 – 84), which ended with the Treaty of Mangalore (1784), were fought during Hasting’s period.
- As a great patron of oriental learning, he founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal with William Jones in 1784. He wrote introduction to the first English translation of “The Gita” by Charles Wilkins.
- Impeachment proceedings started against him when he returned on the charges of taking bribe. After a trial of 7 years, he was finally acquitted.
Note : Sir John MacPherson was made the acting Governor – General from 1785 to 1786.
- Did the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (also called Zamindary System).
- First person to codify laws. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice.
- Police Reforms : Each district was divided into 400 sq. miles and placed under a police superintendent assisted by constables.
- The civil service was brought into existence.
Sir John Shore History (1793 – 1798)
Lord Wellesley in India (1798 – 1805) :
- Adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance a system to keep the Indian rulers under control and to make the British the paramount power.
- He defeated the Mysore force under Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo – Mysore War in 1799.
Subsidiary Alliance in India :
- The Subsidiary Alliance System was used by Weilesley to bring Indian Slates within the orbit the British political power. The system played a very important part in the expansion of ll Company’s dominionsand many new territories were added to the Company’s possessions.
- There were four stages in it. In the first stage, the Company undertook to lend its, friendly Indian prince to assist him in his Wars, in the second stage, the Company’s troops tot the field on their own account with the assistance of an Indian ally who made common; them.
- The next stage was reached when the Indian ally was not to supply men but money. The company undertook to raise, train and equip an. army under English officers and rende to the ally a fixed number of troops on receiving a sum of money towards the cost of these troop Tire final stage was the next logical step.
- The Company undertook to defend the territories of an Indian ally and for that purpose stationed a subsidiary force in the territory of the state. 11 Indian ally was asked not to pay money but surrender territory from the revenue of which expenses of the subsidiary force were to be met.
- The Indian states were to conduct negotiations with other states through the Company. The ste was to accept a British Resident at its headquarters. The Alliance enabled the Company maintain a large standing army at the expense of Indian princes. It disarmed the Indian states ai threw British protectorate over them.
- The states that accepted this policy were the Nizam of Hyderabad, the ruler of Mysore, the Raja Tanjore, the Nawab of Awadh, the Feshwa, the Bhonsle Raja of Berar, the Scindia, the Rajputs Jodhpur, Jaipur, etc.
Land Revenue System in India :
Permanent Settlement ( The Zamindfari System ) :
- Introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Banaras and Northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.
- John Shore planned this.
- It declared Zamindars as the owners of the land. Hence, they could keep 1/11th of the revenue collected to themselves while the British got a fixed share of 10/11th of the revenue collected. The Zamindars were free, to fix the rent.
- Assured of their ownership, many Zamindars stayed in towns (absentee landlordism) and exploited their tenants.
Ryotwari System in India :
- Introduced in Bombay, Madras and Assam. Lord Munro and Charles Reed recommended it.
- In this, a direct settlement was made between the govt, and the ryot (cultivator).
- The revenue was fixed for a period not exceeding 30 years, on the basis of the quality of the soil and the nature of the crop. It was based on the scientific rent theory of Ricardo.
- The position of the cultivator became more secure but the rigid system of revenue collection often forced him into the clutches of the money – lender.
Mahalwari System in India :
- Modified version of Zamindari settlement introduced in the Ganges valley, NWFR parts of Central India and Punjab. Revenue settlement was to be made by village or estate with landlords. In Western UR a settlement was made with the village communities, which maintained a form of common ownership known as Bhaichara, or with Mahals, which were groups of villages.
- Revenue was periodically revised.
George Barlow (1805 – 1807)
Lord Minto I Governor General of India (1807 – 1813) :
- Concluded the treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1809).
- Charter Act of 1813 was passed.
Lord Hasting India (1813 – 1823) : The Anglo-Nepal War (1814 – 16) was fought during his reign which ended with the Treaty of Sagauli (1816).
Lord Amherst (1823 – 1828)
Lord William Bentinck History (1828-1835) :
- Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sari (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830).
- Made English the medium ofhighereducation inthe country (Afterthe recommendations of Macaulay).
- Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.
- Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General of Bengal.
Sir Charles Mercalfe History ( 1835 – 1836 ) : Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press ( called Liberator of the Press ).
Lord Auckland 1842 ( 1836 – 1842 ) : The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the English.
Lord Ellenborough ( 1842 – 1844 )
Lord Hardinge I ( 1844 – 1848 )
Lord Dalhousie Reforms ( 1848 – 1856 ) :
- Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 ( from Bombay to Thane ).
- Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 ( First was from Calcutta to Agra ).
- Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara ( 1848 ), Jaipur and Sambhalpur ( 1849 ), Udaipur ( 1852 ), Jhansi ( 1854 ) and Nagpur ( 1854 ) through it.
- Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country, which made communication easier.
- Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.
Lord Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse : The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence (paramountcy) of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either “manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir”.
The company took over the princely states of Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur (1849), Nagpur and Jhansi (1854) and Awadh (Oudh) (1856) using the Doctrine. The Doctrine is thought to be one of the major driving forces behind the Revolt of 1857.
- Made Shimla the summer capital.
- Started Engineering College at Roorkee.
- Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry.
- In 1854, “Wood’s Dispatch’ was passed, which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university.
- Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s efforts, remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).