General Knowledge : Miscellaneous : World’s Prominent Scientists

World’s Prominent Scientists


List of Prominent Scientists

Sir Martin Ryle : U.K. (1974) Nobal Prize winner in Physics for the development of “aperture synthesis” technique designed to identify stellar objects through radio signals.

Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai : Former Chairman of India’s Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) died on December 30, 1971. Dr. Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly interested in the astro-physical implications of Cosmic Ray Time Variations.

Dr. Frederick Sanger (1918) : First Scientist to receive two Nobel Prizes for Chemistry in 1958 (composition of the insulin molecule) and in 1980 (molecular structures for nucleic acids).

Dr. P.K. Sen is the Indian surgeon who performed Asia’s first heart transplant operation in Mumbai.

Sir James Young Simpson (1811 – 1870) : British physicist to introduce chloroform as an anaesthetic in 1847.

Frederick Soddy (1877 – 1956) : British radio chemist pioneer to research in the atomic disintegration, discovered “isotopes” for which he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1921.

Earnest Solvay (1838 – 1922) : Belgian chemist devised a process for manufacture of sodium carbonate.

Dr. Earl W Sutherland : Recipient of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1971, credited with the discovery, “that the hormones in the human body produce another substance known as cyclic A.M.P., can influence its disease – resisting capacity in the body”.

Dr. Edward Teller : U.S. nuclear scientist developed the hydrogen bomb.

Sir J.J. Thomson (1856 – 1940) : British physicist discovered the electron which inaugurated the electrical theory of the atom.

Tsiolkovsky (1857 – 1940) : Russian pioneer who developed the basic theory of rocketry.

Jules Verne (1828 – 1905) : French science-fiction writer; author of the book “From the Earth to the Moon”. The book carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching and flight of Apollo-8.

A. Volta (1745 – 1827) : Italian physicist and pioneer of electrical science; invented voltaic cell, the electrophorus and electroscope.

Serge Voronoff : Russian scientist known for grafting healthy animal glands, into the human body.

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Watson and Crick : Known for DNA double helix.

Sir Robert Watson Watt : British physicist. He developed radar.

James Watt (1736 – 1819) : Scottish engineer who invented steam engine.

Dr. H Yukawa (born 1907) Predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus, first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (1949).

Luis W Alvares : An American Won the Nobel Prize for elementary physics in 1960 when he discovered a new resonance particle – a discovery that shattered the then prevailing notions as to how matter was built.

Dr. Christian B Anfinsen : USA’s one of the three co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1972.

Archimedes : Greek mathematician who lived about 250 B.C. discovery of the Archimedes’ principle Archimedean Screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.

Kenneth J Arrow : Harvard University, U.S.A. is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, 1972 with Sir John Richard Hicks of Oxford University. The two men are known for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium and welfare theories.

Aryabhatta (476 – 520 A.D.) after whom India’s first scientific satellite has been named, was a great Indian astronomer and mathematician. Among his important contributions are the recognition of the importance of the movement of the earth round the Sun, determination of the physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of the earth and the moon. He laid the foundations of algebra and was responsible for pointing out importance of “zero”.

Amedeo Avogadro : Italian physicist, founder of Avogadro’s hypothesis. He also defined a molecule. He lived between 1776 and 1856.

Prof. John Bardeen : USA’s co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, 1972 (with Prof. Leon N.Cooper and Prof. John Robert Schrieffer) for researches into the “Theory of Super – Conductivity” called BCS theory.

Christian Barnard : South African surgeon who did the first heart transplant operation on Louis Washkansky in 1967.

Dr. G Beadle
: American scientist awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1958 for the actual basis of heredity.

Henri Becquerel : French physicist discovered in 1896 of Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio – activity; later named gamma rays. He shared Nobel Prize for Physics with the Curies in 1903. He lived between 1852 and 1908.

J.J. Berzelius : Swedish Chemist, known for chemical shorthand symbols and atomic weights. He lived between 1779 and 1848.

Sir Henry Bessemer : English engineer invented the process for the manufacture of steel. He lived between 1813 and 1898.

Dr. H.J. Bhabha : Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).

Neils Bohr (born 1885) : Danish Physicist awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He extended the theory of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913.

Robert Boyle : Irish natural philosopher; one of the founders of modern chemistry and Boyle’s law. He lived between 1627 and 1691.

Sir William Bragg : British physicist researched on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X – rays incident upon them. He lived between 1862 and 1942.

Henry Cavendish : English physicist and chemist; discovered properties of hydrogen in 1766. He lived between 1731 and 1810.

Sir James Chadwick : British physicist discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus known as the neutron, because it has no electric charge. He lived between 1891 and 1974.

Jacques Alexander Cesar Charles : A French scientist first to make a balloon ascension with hydrogen. He has worked on the effect of temperature on the volume of gases. He lived between 1746 and 1823.

James Clark Maxwell : British physicist worked wireless telegraphy and telephony. His principal works include : Perception of Colour, Colour Blindness, Theory of Heat, Electricity and Magnetism, Matter and Motion. He lived between 1831 and 1879.General Studies Question Bank CD

Albert Claude : A Biologist shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine. His field of research relates to causes and treatment of cancer.

Christopher Columbus : Italian navigator discovered West Indies Islands, Cuba, Bahamas, South America in 1498. He lived between 1446 to 1506.

Leon N Cooper of USA one of the three co – winners of the Nobel prize in Physics, 1972 for theory of superconductivity.

Copernicus : Astronomer of Poland who discovered the “Solar System”. He lived between 1413 and 1543.

Madame Marie Curie : Polish physicist and chemist; discovered radium awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 and Prize in physics in 1903, lived between 1867 and 1934.

John Dalton : British scientist, founder of the Atomic Theory and law of Multiple Proportions. He lived between 1766 and 1844.

Charles Darwin : British scientist who discovered the principle of natural selection. He lived between 1809 and 1882.

Sir Humphrey Davy : British chemist. First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. He lived between 1771 and 1829.

Gerard Debreu : 1983 Nobel memorial prize in economics, is known for his research on market equilibrium incorporated “new analytical methods into economic theory”.

Dr. Max Delbrueck : American doctor, was one of the three American co – winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1969 for discoveries in molecular genetics.

Dr. Gerald Maurice Edelman of USA is co – winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1972 found out “the chemical structure of blood-proteins or antibodies which shield the human body against infection”.

Thomas Alva Edison : American inventor of phonograph, the incandescent lamp, a new type of storage battery, an early form of cinematography etc. He lived between 1847 and 1931.

Prof. Albert Einstein : German-Swiss, famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He lived between 1879 and 1955.

Michael Faraday : English scientist; prominent in the field of electro – magnetism; discovered the laws of electrolysis. He lived between 1791 and 1867.

Sir John Ambrose Fleming : British physicist and engineer pioneer in the development of the telephone, electric light and radio. He lived between 1849 and 1945.

Fraunhofer : German physicist researched on ‘Light’ while performing spectrum – analysis of Sunlight; discovered ‘Fraunhofer Lines’.

Sigmund Freud : Psycho – analysist. Works: The Interpretation of Dreams; The Psychopathology of Every-day Life; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents. He lived between 1856 and 1939.

Dr Dennis Gabor (1971) : Nobel Prize award for Physics for his “invention in development of the holographic method” – three dimensional photography.

Galileo : Italian scientist viewed that all falling bodies, great or small, descend with equal velocity, invented telescope and became the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter. He lived between 1564 and 1642.

Prof. Murray Gell – Mann : Recipient of the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his “classification of elementary particles and their interactions”.

Robert H Goddard : An American pioneer of space research who mentioned the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes” published by him in 1919.

Thomas Graham : Scottish chemist called the “father of colloidal chemistry”. He worked on diffusion of substances in solution. He lived between 1805 and 1914.

Otto Hahn : German pioneer of nuclear research, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944, proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding uranium with neutrons.

Charles Martin Hall : American chemist discovered the modern method of extraction of aluminium by electrolysis of bauxite in 1886. He lived between 1863 and 1914.

William Harvey : English physician who discovered the circulation of blood. He lived between 1578 and 1675.

Dr.Gebard Herzberg : The 1971 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, for his researches in atomic and molecular structures, particularly free radicals.

Robert Holley : Nobel Prize winner for Medicine, 1968, the genetic code and its function in building protein led to the discovery of “the complete structure of a transfer of RNA molecule”.

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins : English biochemist worked on proteins and vitamins. He received the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1929 for the discovery of Vitamin D.

Fred Hoyle : A British scientist and science-fiction writer who won the 1,000 Kalinga Prize in 1968.

Edward Jenner : English physician discovered the vaccination system of alleviating small pox. He lived between 1749 and 1823.

Dr. Brian Josephson : British scientist who co – shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for physics for his “theoretical predictions of the properties of a super-current through a tunnel barrier, known as Josephson effects”.

James Prescott Joule : English physicist who first demonstrated the mechanical energy can be converted into heat. He lived between 1874 and 1937.

Johannes Kepler : German astronomer discovered 3 laws of planetary motion.

  1. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the foci.
  2. The Radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times.
  3. The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun. He lived between 1571 and 1630.

Hargobind Khorana : who shared with two other the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine is an Indian by birth and an American by domicile. He deciphered the genetic code and later created an artificial gene.

Dr. K.S. Krishnan : (born 1898) collaborated with Sir C.V.Raman in the discovery of “Raman Effect”. President, Indian Science Congress, 1949, delegate to several international scientific conferences; Director, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.

A.L. Lavoisier : French chemist; established “law of Indestructibility of Matter, Composition of Water and Air”. He lived between 1743 and 1794.

Joseph Lister : British surgeon who used antiseptic treatment for wounds; introduced antiseptic surgery. He lived between 1827 and 1912.

Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge : British physicist, known for his researches on radiation, and the relation between matter and ether. He lived between 1851 and 1940.

Lysenko : Soviet geneticist declared the “Mendelian theory obsolete and erroneous” in 1948.

Marconi : Italian scientist pioneer in wireless telegraphy and radio. He lived between 1873 and 1937.

Barbara McClintock : 1983 Nobel Prize winner in Medicine for her discovery of mobile genetic.

Max Planck : German theoretical physicist who formulated the quantum theory. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918.

Johann Gregory Mendel : Austrian monk and naturalist discovered certain principles of inheritance of heredity. He lived between 1822 and 1884.

D.I. Mendeleef : Russian chemist, founder of periodic law and the development of petroleum and other industries in Russia. He lived between 1834 and 1901.

Victor Meyer : Discovered a method to determine the molecular weights of volatile substances. He lived between 1848 and 1897.

Edward William Morley : American chemist and physicist known for his work in determining the composition of water by weight. He lived in 1818 and 1923.

Henry G Moseley : British physicist worked on atomic structure, and in 1913, devised the series of atomic numbers. He lived between 1887 and 1915.

Sir Isaac Newton : British natural philosopher discovered “binomial theorem, the differential and integral calculus and the universal law of gravitation”. He lived between 1642 and 1727.

Dr. Marshall Nirenberg : U.S. molecular biologist 1968 Nobel Prize winner for Medicine with Dr. Robert Holley and Dr. Hargobind Khorana.

George Simon Ohm : Physicist and mathematician; discovered the law known as Ohm’s Law. He lived between 1787 and 1854.

Lars Onsager : U.S. Professor who became a Nobel laureate of 1968 for Chemistry the discovery of “the reciprocal relations bearing his name which are fundamental for the thermo – dynamics of irreversible processes”.

Paraceisus : Swiss mystic and chemist, he was the first to employ laudanum and antimony in Pharmacy. He lived between 1493 and 1541.

Louis Pasteur : French chemist discovered the causes of fermentation in alcohol and milk and founded the Pasteur Institute in 1888. He lived between 1822 and 1895.

Linus Pauling : American bio – chemist applied the quantum theory to chemistry received Nobel Prize (1954) for his contribution to the electrochemical theory of valency.

Dr. Rodney Robert Porter : Biochemist known for his discoveries relating to the chemical structure of antibodies.

Vladimir Prelog : Yugoslavian stereo – chemistry – research of organic molecules and reactions. He received (1975) Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Joseph Priestley : British Chemist; discovered oxygen and methods of collecting gases. He lived between 1733 and 1804.

Prof. U.Ramachandra Rao : Is the Director of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore.

James Rainwater : U.S.A. (1975) Nobel Prize winner in Physics for the development of the theory that atomic nucleus is not always spherical bet can also be egg – shaped which has no immediate practical meaning but is extremely essential to scientists.

T.W. Richards : He worked for the accurate determination of atomic weights and was awarded Nobel Prize in 1916.

Roger Bacon : Inventor of Gun Powder and founder of experimental science. He lived between 1214 and 1294.

W.Konrad Rontgen : German physicist, discovered X – rays, or Rontgen rays for which he was awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901. He lived between 1845 and 1923.

Ronald Ross : British physician discovered the cause of Malaria; awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1902. He lived between 1857 and 1932.

Daniel Rutherford : Scottish scientist discovered nitrogen. He lived between 1749 and 1819.

Lord Rutherford : Won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of atom and radio-activity. He lived between 1871 and 1937.

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Prominent Scientists – Names of Famous Scientists and their Inventions

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