Magnetic Material

On the basis of Magnetic Properties, different materials have been classified into three categories :

  • Diamagnetic
  • Paramagnetic
  • Ferromagnetic

Diamagnetic

Diamagnetic substances are those in which the individual Atoms / Ions / Molecules do not possess any net magnetic moment on their own.

These are feebly magnetized in a direction opposite to that of the magnetizing field in which they are placed, e.g., Bismuth, Antimony, Copper, Gold, Quartz, Mercury, Water, Alcohol, Air, Hydrogen etc.

Paramagnetic

Paramagnetic substances are those in which each individual Atom / Molecule / Ion has a net non-zero magnetic moment on its own.

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These are weakly magnetized in the direction of the magnetizing field in which they are placed, e.g., Al, Pt, Cr, manganese, crown glass, O2 etc.

Ferromagnetic

Ferromagnetic substances are those in which each individual Atom / Molecule / Ion has a non – zero magnetic moment on its own.

These are magnetized strongly in the direction of the magnetizing field in which they are placed.

They show all the properties of paramagnetic substances to a much greater degree.

At certain temperature, ferromagnetic passes over to paramagnetic.

This transition temperature is called Curie temperature.

For soft iron Curie temperature is 1000 K. e.g., iron, cobalt, nickel, and a number of their alloys.

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