11th Five Year Plan of India (2007 - 2012)
On the eve of the 11th Plan, our economy is in a much stronger position than it was a few Years ago. After slowing down to an average growth rate of about 5.5% in the 9th Plan period (1997 - 98 to 2001 - 02), it has accelerated significantly in recent Years.
The average growth rate in the last four Years of 10th Plan period (2003 - 04 to 2006 - 07) is likely to be a little over 8%, making the growth rate 7.2% for the entire 10th Plan period. Though, this is below the 10th Plan target of 8%, it is the highest growth rate achieved in any plan period.
This performance reflects the strength of our economy and the dynamism of the private sector in many areas. Yet, it is also true that economic growth has failed to be sufficiently inclusive, particularly after the mid - 1990s.
Agriculture lost its growth momentum from that point on and subsequently entered a near crisis situation. Jobs in the organized sector have not increased despite faster growth. The percentage of our population below the poverty line is declining but only at a modest pace.
Malnutrition levels also appear to be declining, but the magnitude of the problem continues to be very high. Far too many people still lack access to basic services such as health, education, clean drinking water and sanitation facilities without which they cannot claim their share in the benefits of growth.
Women have increased their participation in the labor force as individuals, but continue to face discrimination and are subject to increasing violence, one stark example of which is the declining child sex ratio.
India's Vision for the 11th Five Year Plan :
The 11th Plan provides an opportunity to restructure policies to achieve a new vision based on faster, more broad - based and inclusive growth. It is designed to reduce poverty and focus on bridging the various divides that continue to fragment our society.
The 11th Plan must aim at putting the economy on a sustainable growth trajectory with a growth rate of approximately 10 per cent by the end of the Plan period. It will create productive employment at a faster pace than before, and target robust agriculture growth at 4% per Year.
It must seek to reduce disparities across regions and communities by ensuring access to basic physical infrastructure as well as health and education services to all. It must recognize gender as a cross - cutting theme across all sectors and commit to respect and promote the rights of the common person.
Rapid growth is an essential part of our strategy for two reasons. Firstly, it is only in a rapidly growing economy that we can expect to sufficiently raise the incomes of the mass of our population to bring about a general improvement in living conditions. Secondly, rapid growth is necessary to generate the resources needed to provide basic services to all.
Work done within the Planning Commission and elsewhere suggests that the economy can accelerate from 8 per cent per Year to an average of around 9% over the 11th Plan period, provided appropriate policies are put in place.
With population growing at 1.5% per Year, 9% growth in GDP would double the real per capita income in 10 Years. This must be combined with policies that will ensure that this per capita income growth is broad based, benefiting all sections of the population, especially those who have thus far remained deprived.
A key element of the strategy for inclusive growth must be an all out effort to provide the mass of our people the access to basic facilities such as health, education, clean drinking water etc. While in the short run these essential public services impact directly on welfare, in the longer run they determine economic opportunities for the future.
The private sector, including farming, micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and the corporate sector, has a critical role to play in achieving the objective of faster and more inclusive growth.
This sector accounts for 76% of the total investment in the economy and an even larger share in employment and output. MSMEs, in particular, have a vital role in expanding production in a regionally balanced manner and generating widely dispersed off - farm employment. Our policies must aim at creating an environment in which entrepreneurship can flourish at all levels, not just at the top.
All this is feasible but it is by no means an easy task. Converting potential into reality is a formidable Endeavour and will not be achieved if we simply continue on a business - as - usual basis. There is need for both the Centre and the States to be self critical and evaluate programmes and policies to see what is working and what is not.
Macroeconomic Indicators for the 11th Five Year Plan
Monitorable Socio - Economic Targets of the 11th Plan
Income & Poverty in India :
11th Five Year Plan Education
11th Five Year Plan Health
Women and Children
11th Five Year Plan Infrastructure :
Environment in India
Growth During Five Year Plans
Appraisal of the Ninth Plan in India
Eleventh Five Year Plan