List of Terminology Index – F

Fascism : Italian political creed developed by Mussolini in which the State represented by one man is supreme and the individual has no rights apart from what the Fascist dictator may allow.

Federalism : A system of government in which several autonomous States join and surrender some important powers (such as defence, foreign relations, etc.) to a central authority for common good.

Federation : A system of government in which several States or provinces of a State hand over certain powers (such as foreign policy, defence, tariff) to a central government, while controlling some part of their internal affairs.

Fifth Column : A term of abuse for traitors (derived from the name applied to rebel sympathizers in Madrid, Spain, in 1936 when four columns were advancing on the city).

Filibuster : To carry out insurrectionist or revolutionary activities in a foreign country. The term is also used for extreme dilatory tactics in an attempt to delay or prevent action especially in a legislative assembly.

Fiscal Deficit : It is sum of budgetary deficit and net increase in internal and external borrowing’s.

Fiscal Policy : It is that part of government policy developed to achieving the desired level of revenue through taxation and declining the priorities and purpose of governing expenditure.

Flag Day : Observed in a country to celebrate the anniversary of a particular day in India. Flag Day is celebrated on December 7 as a mark of gratitude to India’s servicemen. Funds are collected for the cause of the defence personnel and each contributor is given a small flag. In some countries it also called tag day.

Floor Crossing : Defection – members changing parties for personal ends in the legislature – generally considered deroga – tory.

Floppy Disk : A device for storing and retrieving data.

Flow Chart : In computer terminology, it refers to graphical representation of a sequence in a computer program.

FORTRAN : Formula Translating System. A high – level programming language that closely resembles the algebraic notations of formula. Primarily for use by engineers and scientists.

Four Freedom : First propagated by US. President Roosevelt : freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear.

Fourth Estate : The Press (for its power to mould public opinion for or against the existing government).

Franchise : Right to vote in parliamentary elections.

Freedom of the Press : The right to publish newspapers, magazines and other printed matter without governmental restriction and subject only to the laws of libel, obscenity, sedition etc. In India, this freedom is implied in the wider freedom of expression guaranteed under Article 19 (1) of the Constitution.

Freelance : The term applied to a mercenary soldier, i.e. one who fought under any leader who hired him and not because of love for a country. This term is now used for a politician unattached to any party or for a journalist, photographer, etc, who does not work for any one paper or organization. He earns his living by selling his services.

Free Port : A place where there are no duties payable on commercial goods. This is done to encourage tourism.

Fundamental Rights : Basic rights of an individual in a civilized century. In India, these are listed in the Constitution.

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