Career in Nanotechnology Field
Ever heard of a fabric chat does not get affected by stains? Have you heard of a tweezer which is capable of cutting open a single cell of the human body? Welcome to the fascinating and wonderful world of Nanotechnology where all these and much more are possible. This is the field where amazing inventions and discoveries are made by working at the level far below than that can be observed by the naked human eye.
Dubbed as the technology of the future, it is believed that Nanotechnology would provide answers to most of the problems of mankind. One should opt for a course in Nanotechnology, if one is interested in science and in research work. Considerable research work in Nanotechnology is being carried out in several premier institutes and universities across the country, and this science is growing at a tremendous pace. The field of Nanotechnology veritably offers a vast range of prospects and opportunities in terms of rewards and challenges.
Nanotechnology is the technology that is based on the scale of nanometers. One nanometer is equal to one – billionth 10 – 9 of a metre. It is 5,000 to 50,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Compared to a metre, one nanometer is roughly of the same proportion as a golf ball is to the Earth. Nanotechnology is a new interdisciplinary subject combining Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Engineering. The term ‘Nanotechnology’ was coined in 1974 by Prof. Norio Taniguchi at the Tokyo Science University. He used the term to describe the precision manufacture of materials in the scale of a nanometer.
Small materials, on the scale of molecules, are created by the manipulation of single atoms in Nanotechnology. The goal of Nanotechnology is the control of individual atoms and molecules in the creation of computer chips and other devices which are many a time smaller than those created by the usage of current technology. Broadly, there are three main divisions in Nanotechnology – Nanomaterials, Nanoelectronics and Nano – Biotechnology. All major sectors, be it environment, aerospace, telecommunications, solar energy or computing, are impacted upon by Nanotechnology.
This science can be used to change the properties of materials, make advances in Biotechnology or to design other products. Basically, Nanotechnology is used in computers, communication and medical – related devices. Some mind bogging breakthroughs have been made by scientists in recent times. These include clothing which is able to block chemical or biological weapons from touching the skin; water, heat, stain and wrinkle – resistant fabric; material capable of detecting changes in the environment and the technique of delivering a drug, safely and effectively, to a single cell only.
These amazing tricks have been made possible by the manipulation of atoms and molecules individually in order to produce the desired structure in the form of a stable nanomaterial. Nanotechnology has made all such breakthroughs possible. One of the fields in which Nanotechnology finds extensive applications is Nanomedicine. In this field, devices and materials, which are designed at the molecular or nano level, are used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease and traumatic injury, relieving pain and in the overall preservation and improvement of human health.
These devices, designed at the nano level, have size ranging from 1 nanometre ( nm ) to 100 nanometres and are known as nanodevices, Nanotechnology is fused with medicine, in the discipline of Nanomedicine is not exclusively a physician’s job but one in which experts from a number of fields, like Medicine, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Computer Sciences and the Material Sciences work together.
In Nano – Pharmacology, biologically active compounds or molecules are linked with specially fabricated nanomaterials. These are then used as probes and drugs to identify and target various abnormal cells in diseased conditions. “Smart drugs”, which are new advanced nanosized therapeutic drugs, have been developed in recent times. These drugs increase the efficiency of delivering the drugs with minimal side effects.
Two of the most striking inventions on which research is being carried out nanorbots and medical nanotweezers, A medical nanorobot would be eighty blood cell and when injected into the blood stream would travel freely throughout the body, Nanorobots would identify abnormal cells in the body and the supply of the drug carried by them, would be released selectively on coming in contact with the diseased or abnormal cells. Nanotweezers are also in the process of development. They are surgical tools, which are only a few nanometres in thickness. They are electrically controlled multicoated carbon nanotubes which would be used to grab any single biological molecule within the cell.
Nanotweezers would help doctors to perform surgery on an individual human cell, in the future. The development of Nanomechanical Olfactory Sensors ( NOSE ) is another area in which research is going on, NOSE would be used to diagnose diseases, precisely and instantly.
The US is in the forefront in the world in Nanotechnology, Considerable progress in this field is also being made in Japan and Europe, In India, the CSIR ( Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ) has set up 38 laboratories, across the country, to carry out research and development work in this field. The CSIO ( Central Scientific Instruments Organization ) in Chandigarh is one of the 38 laboratories set up by the CSIO.
Nanotechnology Eligibility Criteria
The eligibility criteria for studying Nanotechnology at the Post graduation level is the successful completion of the Bachelor’s Degree with major or honors in Physics, Chemistry, Life Sciences and with PCM ( Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics ) as subsidiary subjects.
In order to pursue a PhD Program in Nanotechnology, one should have completed an MTech in Mechanical, Chemical, Electronic, Biotechnology, Computer Science etc. or an MSc in Physics, Chemistry, Material Science, Biotechnology, Computer Science etc.
One should have a scientific bent of mind and a natural propensity for research work, in order to study Nanotechnology, An open and enquiring mind with sound analytical and computer programming skills is a must in this field. One should have a keen interest in, and some amount of knowledge about diverse fields since Nanotechnology finds application in a wide number of areas. Moreover, one should be hand working and patient in order to spend long hours in the laboratory and be engaged in research work.
Postgraduate Studies in Nanotechnology are offered by IIT’s ( Indian Institutes of Technology ) in the country. Postgraduate Programs are also available at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. The Amity University in New Delhi offers a five and a half – year integrated M Tech Course in Nanotechnology, Courses are two years duration with a course fee of [rupee] 30,000/- per semester, PhD Programs in Nanotechnology are offered by several institutes across the country.
|Sl.No.||Course||Date of Counselling|
|1.||MD Ayurveda||October, 2014|
|2.||MD Homoeo||October, 2014|
|3.||MD Unani||October, 2014|
Presently, no course in Nanotechnology is offered at the Graduation level, in any reputed institute in India. However, the IIT’s are considering the option of starting a BTech Program in Nanotechnology.
With a professional degree in Nanotechnology under one’s belt, one will get job opportunities in biotech companies among several other avenues. In a biotech company, one’s work profile may include the fabrication of miniature systems and devices to be used in Nanomedicine or working on a nanoparticle – based molecular system for detecting biological warfare agents.
One will also find employment opportunities in large pharmaceutical companies where one will be working on the delivery process of drugs or on the development of a new therapeutic drug. There are a lot of opportunities available in the field of research in Nanotechnology; various research programs in Nanotechnology are funded by the Government and universities across the country.
Nanotechnology is one filed in which there are employment opportunities for engineers from all disciplines, the synthesis, functionalism characterizations, and optimization of materials are done by Chemical Engineers, which are a few among the variety of functions performed by them in the field of Nanotechnology, The development of non – material assembly processes, creation of test protocols and the preparation of reports are some of the other functions performed by Chemical Engineers.
The design, production and testing of Machines, Instruments, Controls, Engines and Mechanical, Thermal or Heat Transfer systems is done by Mechanical Engineers. The designing of methods by virtue of which natural substances get changed into newer, stronger, and more resistant materials with unique properties is the work of Materials Engineers in the field of Nanotechnology.
Currently, there are around 500 companies in the market who offer nanotech products while another 150 odd institutions are involved in research work in Nanotechnology, The Government of India offers considerable support for the generation of awareness and promotion of Nanotechnology, Two schemes related to Nanotechnology – the Nanoscience and Technology Initiative launched by the Department of Science and Technology and the Science and Technology Initiatives in Nanotechnology – are being promoted by the Government of India.
Several other work opportunities are also available in Nanotechnology, apart from that of a scientist or an engineer, Business development and administration, legal areas, and sales and marketing are few other areas, where one can work in the field of Nanotechnology. With a professional degree in Nanotechnology under one’s belt, one can work as a Scientist, Academician, Biotechnologist, Systems Designer, Research Officer or Product Designer.
Nanotechnology impacts all major sectors like Solar Energy, Aerospace, Environment, Telecommunications, Computing, etc. Nanotechnology has been widely used in number of Movies, Television Series and Video Games too. By the year 2015, Nanotechnology is estimated to have grown to a $1 trillion industry. It is expected to revolutionize a number of fields like medicine and military. It is the technology of the future.
Nanotechnology Career Remuneration
Generally, the starting salary for one with an MTech or PhD Degree in Nanotechnology under one’s belt, is in between [rupee] 60,000/- and [rupee] 1,00,000/-. Those who have passed out from the IIT’s or other premier institutes with a Master’s Degree earns a salary of [rupee] 4,00,000/- to [rupee] 6,00,000/-.
Fresh PhD holders from IIT’s are absorbed by multinational Nanotechnology companies with salaries ranging between [rupee] 9,00,000/- to [rupee] 12,00,000/- per annum. Nanotechnology is a booming industry which is expected to throw up a large number of job opportunities with handsome pay packages in the future.