Career in Mushroom Cultivation
Mushrooms are a group of fungi some of which are edible and rich in nutritive value. Edible mushrooms are cultivated and used in various ways as food. Mushrooms are useful food in modern diet. They are often prescribed by dieticians and doctors in obesity, heart problems and diabetes.
Agricultural wastes (straw, leaves, etc.) and wastes from forest and industry can be used as substrates for the cultivation of mushrooms and after harvesting of mushrooms these substrates can be reused as manures in agriculture and floriculture.
Another advantage of mushroom growing is that it can be grown in rooms which requires small area and hence huge investment in land is not required. Mushroom takes less time for production and its yield per unit area is highest of all crops. Thus, mushroom growing is a profitable venture.
Calorific value of mushrooms is quite low therefore it can be recommended as a slimming diet. Carbohydrates of mushrooms do not contain starch and cane sugar (sucrose). Glucose and fat are present in very small quantity. Therefore, it can be recommended in diet of people suffering from diabetes.
Mushroom protein is easily digestible and contains adequate quantities of most of the essential amino aeids that are not found in cereals, vegetables, and meat. Mushrooms have high mineral content, particularly phosphorus and potassium.
Mushrooms can be grown using primitive as well as advance technology. Primitive technology require very less investment but only two crops can be taken in a year because mushrooms require low temperature which is possible only during winters in plains of India.
In the hilly region 4 – 5 crops can be taken. Primitive technology gives poor yield per unit area. Low cost of investment for mushroom production make it very suitable for self – employment. Sophisticated modern technology of mushroom culture requires heavy investment.
However, use of modern technology ensures high yield, low cost of production and round the year production.
Therefore, many mushroom culture industries have been setup in India where good employment opportunities exists for persons trained in mushroom culture.
Mushroom culture industry require persons of following categories :–
- Skilled Workers : Persons trained in manual work like Culture Techniques, Spawn Technique, Sterilization Technique, Artificial Environment Control, Harvesting, Packaging and Storage.
- Junior Technicians : Class X pass with one year training in Culture Practices, Environment Control, Spawn making, harvesting, packaging & storage.
- Senior Technician : B.Sc. in agriculture with mushroom culture as a major subject. Training in Polyhouse / Greenhouse, Artificial Environment Control, Sales, Marketing & Exports is desirable.
- Scientist / Scientific Officer / Manager : Persons having M.Sc. / Ph.D. in the field of Agriculture / Microbiology / Mycology / Virology with specialization in Polyhouse / Greenhouse, Sales Marketing and exports.
Self – employment opportunity : Employment can be created for self and other persons by establishing mushroom cultivation unit. Cottage / small scale industry can be started with limited resources.
This industry has very high employment generation and foreign exchange earning potential.
List of some institutions / universities that offer courses in mushroom culture :
- IARI, New Delhi
- National Centre for Mushroom Research and Training, Solan, H.P.
- Assam Agricultural University Jorhat
- Birsa Agriculture University Ranchi
- Rajendra Agricultural University Pusa Samastipur
- Haryana Agricultural University Hissar
- Shere – e – Kashmir University of Agriculture Srinagar
- University of Agriculture Sciences Bangalore
- Kerala Agriculture University Trichur
- Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahure Ahmednagar
- Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth Akola
- Central Agricultural University Imphal
- G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology Pantnagar
- Acharya N.G. Ranga Adhra Pradesh Agricultural University Hyderabad.
- University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad
- Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Palampur
- Nerendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology Faizabad
- Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana.
- Rajasthan Agricultural University Bikaner
- Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore
- Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi
- C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur