Career in Veterinary Dairy and Fishery Sciences
The country is endowed with vast livestock resources, as it is evident from their number and genetic from their number and genetic from their number and genetic diversity and ecological contribution.
The livestock industry of India contributes to 8% of the GDP, where as 32% of GDP contribution from the agricultural industry comes from the livestock itself.
However, the total contribution that Indian agricultural industry makes to the GDP of India is 25%. The contribution of Indian livestock industry was Rs. 51 billion to the total export earnings of India during the year 2004 – 2005, out of which the contribution of leather and meat products was 50% & 25% respectively. India has the largest livestock population of more than 500 million herds, which contribute 15% of the world population.
The demand of veterinarian to take care of this huge livestock is on the rise. Due to commercialization of veterinary Industry and the liberalization of Indian Government Policies, more and more international industries of food manufacturing, pharmaceutical, diagnostic and vaccine production etc., have opened up demand for veterinary professionals.
Veterinary Science deals with the study of animal health care, breeding, feeding and management practices. The job of a veterinarian is challenging keeping in view the wide range of animals. Contrary to earlier belief, veterinary profession is no longer the male bastion. It is a medical profession that deals with health care and disease management in farm animals.
Career Opportunities :
Veterinary Science offers a large number of avenues of work and the demand for Veterinary doctors has increased tremendously, Veterinarians can choose to work with the government Animal Husbandry Departments, Poultry Farms, Dairy Farms, Sheep and Rabbit Farms, Race Clubs, Stud Farms, Private and Government Veterinary Hospitals and Clinics.
Wildlife sanctuaries and zoological parks as well as aviaries need veterinarians. The Army and the Border Security Forces also employ veterinarians for the care and treatment of their mounted regiments which have Horses, Mules, Camels and Dogs. Private practice is another option they can consider. Teaching is another option as experienced professionals are recruited in various institutions to train the new entrants to the field.
Besides regular practice, vets can also take up research work, either on their own or in association with the government such as ICAR ( Indian Council for Agricultural Research ).
Pharmaceutical industries appoint veterinary scientists in their research and development divisions for the research and development of drugs, chemicals and bio – products particularly antibiotics and vaccines both for human and animal use.
They can also work in Technical Sales, Agribusiness, Marketing, Pet Food Manufacturing Industries and in Management of Industries dealing with Animal Feed, Animal Products, Milk and Meat Products processing industries etc. Various career options in the field of Veterinary Science are in Hospitals to work as Veterinary Surgeons. But Government postings could be in rural areas where they have to treat Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Horses, Poultry, etc.
Private Practice :
Veterinary doctors in urban areas can set up private practice to deal mainly with small or domestic animals. This can be quite profitable, especially in big cities, but tends to get restricted to canine and feline pets. Job openings are also as Extension Officers for extension programs at the block level, i.e., they educate and encourage livestock farmers to build up the quality of animal farm management and animal health problems.
Veterinarians work in poultry farms to maintain the health of poultry birds and to develop strains with high egg productivity, as well as poultry for table consumption. Job prospects in comparison to other professional and technical degree programs are better for veterinary graduates.
Opportunities in Higher Education :
Job Opportunities are not a constraint. One can go for post graduation ( M.V.Sc ), the minimum qualification for the post of Assistant Professor. For getting admission to M.V.Sc, there is a State and a National level test as for B.V.Sc & AH. Apart from the above 45 colleges in India, IVRI ( Indian Veterinary Research Institute Bareilly, UP ) offer the Master and Ph.D Programs in almost every subjects.
NDRI and College of Animal Science, CCSHAU, Hissar are awarding Masters and Ph.D in the animal sciences only. There are opportunities overseas for higher studies. One can also practice in a foreign country after clearing a test for licensing. A MBA alongwith B.V.Sc & Sc & AH will provide the candidate better opportunity in different industries at managerial grade.
There are number of opportunities in NGOs / Societies working for the welfare of the animals and livestock owners like BAIF ( Bharti Agro Industrial Federation ), Help – in – Suffering, LPP ( League for Pastoral People ), PETA ( People for Ethical Treatment of Animal ) etc.
Various fellowship schemes vizard National Talent Scholarship, Junior and Senior ICAR fellowships, internship allowance at higher rate and pay package to veterinary professionals equivalent to professional of other field are also available for the researchers. On completion of the B.V.Sc and AH, most of the learners go on to pursue the postgraduate Program, vizard, Master in Veterinary Science.
The MV.Sc. is a 2 Year Course and the candidate has the option to specialize in areas such as Medicine, Surgery, Anatomy, Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Cardiology, Dermatology, Micro – biology, Molecular Biology, Anaesthesia, Gynaecology, Pathology, Toxicology, Virology, Pharmacology, etc.
Career Development Institutes :
Presently there are more than 45 veterinary colleges in the country which are imparting the BV.Sc & AH degree. There are 40 State Agricultural Universities in the country of which seven are specialized Universities dealing exclusively with Veterinary Science and Animal Science including fishery education.
The 15 constituent’s colleges are attached to these Veterinary Universities. Out of the remaining 33 States Agriculture Universities, 18 Universities have 19 constituent colleges of Central Agricultural University, Imphal and one affiliated to general university of Pondicherry in the country.
In addition, Rajasthan Agriculture University, Bikaner has accorded affiliation to two veterinary colleges under private sector. Tentative list is as follows :
|B.D.S.*||5 years||H.S.C. ( +2 ) or equivalent qualification with English, Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Botany & Zoology|
|B.SC. Nursing*||4 years||H.S.C. ( +2 ) or equivalent qualification with Physics, Chemistry and Biology / Botany / Zoology & English|
( Post Basic Bahelor of Science )
|2 years||Diploma in Nursing with 1 year clinical experience|
|Bachelor of Physiotherapy*||4 1/2 years incl. 6 months internship||H.S.C. ( +2 ) or equivalent qualification with Physics, Chemistry and Biology ( or ) Botany & Zoology|
|Bachelor of Occupational Therapy*||4 1/2 years incl. 6 months internship||H.S.C. ( +2 ) or equivalent qualification with Physics, Chemistry and Biology ( or ) Botany & Zoology|
|Bachelor of Pharmacy*||4 years||H.S.C. ( +2 ) or equivalent qualification with Physics, Chemistry and Biology ( or ) Botany & Zoology|
|Bachelor in Audiology and Speech Language Pathology||4 years||Pass in H.S.C. with Physics, Chemistry and Biology|
|B.Optom*||3 years||H.S.C. with Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
|Bachelor of Medical Record Sciences||2 years||Any degree of a recognized university|
|B.Sc. Medical Laboratory Technology||3 years||H.S.C.|
|* For all above courses the minimum aggregate marks is 60%|
Entrepreneur Development :
Scope for entrepreneur development in diversified areas is on the rise. Canine and feline practice in cosmopolitan cities, establishment of dairy and poultry industries, milk and meat processing venture, establishment of livestock business and marketing etc., are gaining momentum.
Liberalization of loans through agencies like the NABARD, Rural Cooperative Banks, and Nationalized Banks under the rural development Programs, establishment of polyclinics, and livestock sector for operationalization and monitoring of the above schemes are boosting the demands for veterinarian.
For taking admission in the B.V.Sc & AH ( Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ) Course, the minimum qualification is 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry, and Biology ( PCB ). Candidates are selected for this 5 Years BV.Sc & AH. Course on the basis of entrance test held by State Agriculture University at State level and by VCI ( Veterinary Council of India ) at National level.
15% seats in every college are filled through national level test and rest by the State Level Test. The duration of the B.V.Sc and AH varies from four and a half years to 5 Years, including the period of internship. The first four years of the training Program are devoted to imparting skills through theoretical and practical training in various disciplines such as Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Nutrition, Livestock Management and Production, Production Technology, Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics and Breeding, Gynaecology, Surgery, Medicine and Animal Husbandry Extension, among others.
The fifth year is devoted to hands – on training, of which six months is through internship. Besides this, Training is also provided in Dairying and Poultry Sciences.
Department of Biotechnology,
Government of India,
Block – 2, C.G.O. Complex,
Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003,
Email : email@example.com.