Human beings have used different medium for communication to express their Internal Feelings, Imaginations, and thoughts since time immemorial. For these they had used line Drawings, Symbols, Motifs and Figurative manuscript in ancient period. In Stone Age they made their tools with stone for hunting. Later on the stone was used for expression of their intuitions and imaginations. The terracotta of different civilizations can explain their cultural development of that period. We have found so many terracotta figures from Indus Valley civilization which tells about the civilization of that era. For the presentation of art, Sculpture is a three dimensional medium.
A good combination of folk acceptance, religious trusts, traditions and cultural activities can be seen in the art of sculpture. Terracotta, stone, wood, metal are the most important medium of making a sculpture. In these medium we find a specific regional affect and cultural identification of particular area. Here I am going to focus on the art of 3-D expression-Sculpture. The art of sculpturing is a visual expression of three dimensions in a solid form. It may be round or relief and it is in practice since immemorial time. People use a sculpture or a figure for Expression, Worship, Decoration, Fear, Memory and Identifications. The oldest Indian literatures; the Vedas, the Puranas, and the Upanishads have focused on the use and importance of sculpture in detail.
Later the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and other literatures with Buddhism and Jainism have also described different types of sculptures and their role in religion and society. There are so many temples and kalamandapas everywhere in India and even in abroad. The medieval period of Indian history has lots of examples of such types of sculptures. So, the art of sculpture has played an important role in the development of religion, values and culture of the society. There are many places in our country famous for Indian sculptures. We all well know about Khajuraho, Elora, Konark, Sarnath etc. The sculpture from Gandhar, Mathura and Kushan are also able to describe cultural development of that period. Our country has vast cultural and religious activities. In these activities we use many types of sculptures for whole of the year. Some of them are permanent and the rest are temporary—means for the occasion of certain period ( festival, vrata and pujas ).
Indian religion describes thousands of vrata and pujas, in which we need a specific figure in different part of this land. Indian religions have millions of gods and goddesses for worship and pray according to vrata and pujas. Fine art ( visual and performing ) is a medicine for mental relaxation and it is a tool of meditation, self satisfaction, joy and expressions. In fine art, Sculpture is a branch of visual expression like Paintings. Where as Painting is a two – dimensional expression, but sculpture is a three – dimensional expression. There are many methods and process in practice to create a sculpture and so many types of materials are being used to shape or make a model or figure or a sculpture. Today this art has reached on Glass, Fiber Glass, Plastic and other innovative medium through the journey of Terracotta, Stone, Wood, Metal etc.