Types of sculpture may be based on as follows :
C. Medium or Material
- Clay ( Terracotta )
- Plaster of Paris
- Fiber glass / Synthetic Stone
- Wax and lac
- Assembling with mix Media etc.
- Installation etc.
Apart of these we can also classify it on the basis of period, worship like ‘Shaiv’, ‘Shakt’, ‘Vaishnav’ ‘Budhism’, ‘Jainism’ etc. We can also differentiate sculpture as out door and In door Sculpture. Sculpture for Decoration, Worship and Life & Portraits etc. Here I am going to focus on method based sculpture in brief which will be helpful to the young sculptor as well as traditional potter and sculptor :
This is the oldest method of making a sculpture specially terracotta figure and sculpture for vrata and pujas. We use wet and flexible materials in this method. With wet clay, we can make easily a model or a figure either on wheel or in free hand. After drying we bake or fire it which is called terracotta. We have so many references of use of god’s created clay (earth) in Indian classical literatures. “The legend has it that Shiva created this earth with a lamp of mud brought by crab from Pataal. “Our civilization has developed with clay brought from the bottom of the sea.Traditional potters use this method since ancient period.
2. Moulding – Casting :
The term moulding-casting is made of two words. First the is mould which will be done after completion of the modeling of a figure with the help of plaster of Paris, rubber etc. and second is the process to complete the figure with help of the mould. In the field of sculpture this method plays an important role in creating a model of clay into cement, plaster of Paris, metal, fiber-glass etc. We can make a replica or a copy of a traditional sculpture of stone, wood or metal into a new medium i.e. fiber-glass, cement, plaster of Paris etc.
3. Carving :
This is also an old method of making a sculpture in solid and hard materials like stone and wood. We can find the sculpture of stone since Stone Age. For the fulfillment of different types of needs and objectives people create a figure / sculpture in stone. We can find most of traditional sculpture made of stone which are based on carving method. Usually the sculpture of a temple is made of stone, it may be sand, marble or granite stone. “Many forms of Indian mythology can be engraved with tradition of decoration in wood. Several images of gods and goddesses are made in wood.” Folk cultural imitation can be clearly seen in the wooden Stambh (pillar). Carved wooden sculptures are also available in temple. For example the wooden sculpture of lord Jagnnath (Krishna) – Balbhadra- Shubhadra at Puri in Orrisa. We can find sculpture of lord Buddha, Mahavir and other Hindu gods and goddesses everywhere in India. ‘Shivalinga’ is the most sacred and abstract form of lord Shiva and Shakti, which depicts about the nature and creator of the universe.
Another famous sculpture of India is ‘Natraj’ a dancing (tandava nritya) figure of lord Shiva denoting pralaya (abolition) and for a new creation of life. Thus the carving method of making a sculpture is a solid and permanent medium. A young artist or a traditional carver can enhance his / her skill and wages with the appropriate training and knowledge.
4. Installation :
This is an innovative media to express our feelings, imaginations and thoughts with the help of any materials. In this method we put some goods and materials and present it in a proper manner and titled it attractively. In this method the material are not important, only our presentation is valuable and so we call it installation and assembling. This is a perfect media only for modern and abstract creations. We can’t create a realistic figure in this medium.To work in this medium there is a need of artistic approach and knowledge of art trends.
5. Commercial Aspects :
There is demand for sculpture in India and abroad. So it can be opted as a profession. In a year millions of sculptures are made with temporary and permanent materials. Today people want to install a sculpture on road-junction, park, in a lawn, corridor of a building or in a drawing room of a house.
6. Training and Education :
There are many courses available in the field of sculpture. There are some institutions which provide the degree and training programme with short term certificate courses in this field.