Functions of Biotechnology Careers : : Career Biotechnology Information
Work of Biotechnologists :
Any technique that uses living organism or a part of living organism to make or modify products to improve plants, animals to process or to develop microorganisms for various uses and recent development in molecular biology and their commercial applications is known as Biotechnology. It includes micro propagation, formation of eco – friendly products, cell and tissue culture technique as well as recombinant DNA technology which has opened avenues for existing possibilities and a new era of research and development.
Few important function of Biotechnology :
- Cloning of organisms.
- Genome Sequencing.
- To cure the hereditary disease through DNA Technology.
- Formation and availability of gene bank, seed bank cryo banks for future use.
- Formation of new viral and bacterial vaccines.
- Formation of organic fertilizer.
- Development of disease resistant & hybrid plants and animals.
- Drug designing.
- Formation & production of alcohol, antibiotic, enzyme & secondary metabolites for welfare of humanity.
- To find out alternate sources of energy.
- Production of biogas, biodiesel and green energy.
- Conservation and protection of forest.
- Purification of environment.
- Conservation of environment.
- Minimizing pollution load through eco friendly technology.
- Waste management.
- Production of genetically modified organisms.
- Value addition, in agricultural products.
- Production of eco friendly pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
- Vermi composting.
- Food processing industries.
- Gene therapy, Stem cell culture, organ culture etc.
- Production of designer plants and animals.
- Tissue culture and cell culture.
- Pharmaceutical research and generic medicines.
Biotechnology can be chosen as the area of specialization / study at graduation, post graduation or research level. The field offers late entrants the advantage of not necessarily having a prior degree in the subject. Some important prerequisites and entry / level biotech education available in India are :
B.Sc Biotechnology :
Many state universities offer a B.Sc degree in biotech, like Bangalore University Karnataka, CCS University Uttar Pradesh, Kakatiya University Andhra Pradesh, Madras University Tamil Nadu, Osmania University Andhra Pradesh, Patna University Bihar and Magadh University Bihar and many others, for which the eligibility criterion is essentially 40 % (minimum percentage may vary state) in PUC / 10+2 / intermediate / equivalent with science subjects.
The duration of the course is 3 Years and admissions are either entrance exam by the university / institute or percentage – based.
B.Tech / B.E Biotechnology :
Some of the IITs offer a 4 Years B.Tech course in biotechnology. IIT Kharagpur offers a B.Tech degree program in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering while IIT Chennai and Guwahati give a B.Tech degree in Biotechnology. In 2004, IIT Kanpur introduced a B.Tech degree in Biological sciences and Bio – Engineering. Admission to these IIT undergraduate programs is through an all India competitive exam the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE). Besides the IITs several other institutes and universities offer a BE / B.Tech Biotechnology course, e.g., the Anna University Chennai has been offering a B.Tech Program in Industrial Biotechnology since 1992.
Some other universities offering B.Tech (Biotechnology) courses include :
- Bharathidasan Institute of Engineering & Technology Tiruchirappalli.
- Guru Gobind Singh University, Delhi, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (B.Tech Chemistry and Bio – Engineering).
- UP Technical University Lucknow.
- Vellore Institute of Technology Vellore (Tamil Nadu).
Students are selected either through the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) or the common entrance exam conducted by respective State Government Organizations & Universities.
M.Sc Biotechnology :
Presently, there are 30 M.Sc courses in general biotech, seven in agricultural biotech, one in medical biotech, two in marine biotech, one in industrial biotech and three in neuro – science running under various universities, supported by the DBT. Combined biotech entrance examination is conducted by Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi (On behalf of DBT), in May every Year.
M. Tech Biotechnology :
IIT Delhi and IIT Kharagpur offer a 5 Year integrated dual degree M.Tech course in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology with the support of DBT. IIT Chennai offers a similar integrated M.Tech in Biotechnology. Students are eligible to enter these courses after completion of B.Sc with Science or B.Tech. M.Tech Biotech program (2 Years / 4 semesters are offered by Anna University, Chennai and University of Technology, Kolkata and IIT Kanpur with the support of the DBT, though many other academic institutions have also recently started offering the course.
Candidates who have done B.Pharmacy or B.Tech / BE course in biotech or related disciplines or M.Sc Life Science are eligible for this program. Admissions are either through the joint biotechnology entrance exam conducted by JNU or through GATE. M.Tech degree in Bioprocess Technology offered by the University Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai. This course is also supported by the DBT. Students with Bachelor’s Degree in Chemical Engineering, Pharmacy, Chemical technology with GATE are eligible and the selection is based on the GATE scores plus the ICT written test and interviews. The Birla Institute of Technology (BITS), Pilani offers a ME degree in biotechnology.
MBA Biotechnology :
The University of Pune pioneered a unique 2 Year fulltime MBA program in biotechnology in 2002. The syllabus is based on the requirements of the industry about 60% of the syllabus covers the managerial aspect and the rest covers the nitty – gritty of biotechnology. Some other Universities, are also offering MBA Biotechnology course.
Bioinformatics, an offshoot of biotechnology, has been lately attracting a lot of attention. This has led to specialized B.Sc / M.Sc and B.Tech course in this branch Bharathiar University Coimbatore and Pune University, which has a centre of excellence in Bioinformatics, offer a 2 Year M.Sc course in University has been offering a B.Tech course in Bioinformatics, since 1999. DBY supports a 1 Year course (Advanced Diploma in Bioinformatics) in five Indian universities, viz., Calcutta University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Madurai Kamaraj University, Pondicherry University and Pune University. Apart from the DBT – supported courses, the Bangalore – based Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB) offers a PhD program in Bioinformatics.
PhD Programs :
India boasts of a network of research institutes spread around the country established both by government and private sectors. Students wanting to pursue an active career in biotech research can enter any CSIR ICAR, ICMR lab and medical colleges depending on their qualification and area of specialization.
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research holds national – level joint CSIR – UGC Examination (NET) twice a Year, in June and December. This examination determines the eligibility of Indian nationals for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) and appointment of lecturers in science and arts disciplines. Considering the emergence of new specialized disciplines and their need in drug R & D, CSIR has recently permitted fresh engineering and medical graduates and M Pharmacy candidates with a valid GATE score to avail CSIR fellowships for pursuing a research career, in addition to CSIR lateral entry as Senior Research Fellow.
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) promotes science and technology programs in agricultural research and education and carries out research directly through ICAR institutes and national research centers, project directorates and also in association with the State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) through All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) systems. Agricultural Research Services (ARS) / National Eligibility Test (NET) examination is conducted by Agricultural Scientists Recruitment. Board (ASRB), Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi for filling up vacancies of scientists for the various ICAR institutes and for recruitment of lecturers and assistant professors by the State Agricultural Universities (SAUs).
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) formulates, coordinates and promotes biomedical research in India. Apart from the labs falling under CSIR / ICAR, almost all the NTs, institutes and universities having a life / biological sciences department, further research in this frontier area.
Admission to these PhD program / is made on the basis of written test interview conducted by the department / center concerned. The Indian Instituted Science (IISc), Bangalore, a premier scientific research institute, conducts both PhD and integrated PhD programs (directly after B.Sc.) in biological sciences, which includes research in biotechnology also. Admission to IISc is through an entrance exam conducted by the institute or is based on the GATE score followed by an interview.
Entrepreneurship Potential of Biotechnologist :
Professionally trained biotechnologist can be successful entrepreneur by setting up industries / consultant house based on the biotechnology. There is great scope of starting biotechnology based business and industry in these fast changing times. Sustainable development of the globe is only possible with green scientific and technological breakthrough which can be brought by developing and adopting biotechnological tools and techniques.
Food and nutritional security, industrial development, waste management, health care, climate change management are major areas which have the potential of establishing useful and profitable enterprises. Student of biotechnology need not to be a “job seeker” but they can be “job provider” by using their knowledge, skill and expertise for setting up biotechnology based enterprises. The research work going on in leading laboratories for breakthrough in biotechnological development can shape the new emerging world of sustainable development and properties for one and all. Indian students are sharp, intelligent and enterprising with biotechnology background they have the potential to make the nation developed and leader of the globe. There are many reputed government organizations, universities and private institutions around our country, affiliated to one or the other technical and non – technical, state or central university offering biotechnology courses, as well.