**AMIE Electrical Engineering Syllabus ( Section B ) 2021**

**Microprocessor and Microcontrollers**

**Group A**

- Microprocessor architecture and microcomputer systems, memory systems, input and output devices. Number systems – binary, hexadecimal and BCD numbers, 2s complement and arithmetic operations.
- 8085 microprocessor architecture. Memory interfacing – address decoding techniques, memory read and write operations. Memory map. Interfacing I / O devices – Memory – mapped I / O and I / O mapped I / O. Polled and interrupt modes of data transfer. 8085 interrupts, direct memory access. Introduction to 16 – bit microprocessor using 8086 as an example. Concept of debugger and MASM / TASM for PC assembly language programming.
- Peripheral devices. 8255 programmable peripheral interface, 8253 programmable counter timer, serial communication with SID and SOD, 8251 programmable communication interface, 8259 programmable interrupt controller, keyboard and display devices.
**8085 assembly language programming :**8085 instructions – addressing modes. Stack and subroutines. 8085 programmer’s model – CPU registers. Addition, subtraction and multiplication routines. Software delay and counting routines. Logical operations. Analog and digital I / O interface routines – ADC and DAC.**Software development systems :**Assemblers and cross – assemblers. Microprocessor applications. Microprocessor – based system design aids and trouble – shooting techniques.

**Group B**

**Introduction to microcontroller :**Comparison of various microcontrollers. 8051 microcontroller architecture. Bi – directional data ports, internal ROM and RAM, counters / timers. Oscillator and clock.- 8051 registers. Memory organisations – program memory and data memory, internal RAM and bit addressable memory, special functions, registers, memory map.
- External memory systems and I / O interface. Accessing external program memory, accessing external data memory, available I / O ports during external memory access. Alternate port functions. Serial interface. 8031 interrupts. Power down modes.
- 8051 assembly language programming. 8051 instruction sets, addressing modes, bit level operations. Arithmetic routines, counting and timing under interrupt control, keyboard and display interface routines, accessing lookup tables.
- Software development systems. Assemblers and simulators. Microcontroller based system design and applications.

**Advanced Aspects of Electrical Machines**

**Group A**

- Synchronous motor analysis taking armature resistance into account, vector diagrams, power circle and excitation circle – diagrams. Performance calculations under various operating conditions.
- The equation of motion or ‘swing’ equation for synchronous motors and generators. Solutions of linearized swing equation, small oscillations of synchronous machines. Hunting of synchronous motors, elements of large oscillation of synchronous machines, concept of transient stability.
- Starting of synchronous motors with the help of damper windings, George’s phenomenon. Brushless excitation of synchronous generators and motors.
**Synchronous – induction motor :**Slip – ring induction motor run as synchronous motor. – Different types of motor excitation. Starting and running characteristics – combined synchronous motor and induction motor circle diagrams, performance calculation, design features.- Concept of negative sequence and zero sequence reactances of synchronous machines.

**Group B**

- Inverter operation of induction motors, space and time harmonies and their effects on the performance of induction motors.

Induction generators; Operation from bus – bars, self – excitation equivalent circuits and performance – its utility in wind power generation. **A.C. commutator machines :**General construction. Derivation of generalized expressions : ( a ) Transformer e.m.f. and rotational e.m.f’s in phase windings; ( b ) Transformer and rotational e.m.f’s in commutator windings, uncompensated and compensated series motor : vector diagrams, circle diagram, operational characteristics and design features.- Variable reluctance and fractional and sub – fractional h.p. motors : Different types of reluctance and stepper motors, permanent magnet motors, derivation of performance equations. Control schemes and performance.

**Electrical Drives**

**Group A**

- Basic concepts. Dynamics of electric drives.
- Mechanical system – different speed / torque characteristics of different frictional system, windage torque. N – T characteristics of deferent industrial systems, four quadrant operation of drive systems, dynamic conditions of a drive system, steady state and transient stability of electrical drive.
- Drive motors : DC motor, three – phase induction motor and synchronous motor characteristics require power losses, temperature restrictions, heating and cooling, different modes of operation ( continuous / short lime intermittent duty / periodic intermittent duty ), selection of motors.
- Drive motor power supply : A general survey of different power supply systems for motor drive. Phase controlled line commutated converters. DC choppers.
- Inverters.
- Cyclo converters. AC voltage controllers.

**Group B**

**Control of electric motors :**DC drives – single phase and 3 phase converter drives. Chopper drives, closed loop control of DC motor.**AC drives :**3 phase induction motor control, starter voltage control/rotor voltage control, voltage and frequency control, current control, closed loop control of 3 – 0 induction motor.**Synchronous motor control :**Voltage and frequency control, closed loop control of synchronous motors.

**Electrical Power Utilization**

**Group A**

**Radiation and vision :**Physics of light – wave theory, quantum theory, unified theory, photon generation, visible wavelength range, standard observer curve, different forms of energy converted to visible radiation, spectral power distribution curve.- Quantities, units, standards and measurement : Luminous energy, luminous flux, spectral radiant flux, solid angle, luminous intensity, luminance, illuminance, luminous efficacy.
- Colour temperature, colour rendering index, reflectance, diffuser, etc. Lambert’s cosine law, inverse square law and cosine law of illumination. Polar curve, Roussea’s diagram, illuminance ( flux ) meter, bench photometer ( intensity measurement ), integrating sphere ( flux measurement ).
- Optical system of human eye.
**Sources of light :**Construction and electrical circuits of different sources of light, filament lamps, halogen temps, discharge lamps – sodium and mercury high pressure discharge lamps, tube and CFL lamps.- Lighting calculations for indoor and outdoor applications : Shop lighting, factory lighting, street lighting, flood lighting.

**Group B**

**Electric heating, welding and electroplating :**Induction heating – principle of operation, scope of high frequency and low frequency heating, induction heating, power supplies at different frequencies.- Induction heating furnaces – coreless and core types.
**Arc heating :**AC arc heating – different arc electrodes, direct and indirect arc furnace and their power supply systems, electrode regulators, condition for maximum output, necessity of reactor in arc furnace, general arc furnace transformer construction, energy balance in arc furnace, advantages of direct arc furnaces.- DC arc furnace supply system, different bottom electrodes, twin shell DC EAF ( electrode arc furnace ) system, advantages of DC arc heating.
**Dielectric heating :**Principle of operation, choice of voltage and frequency, electrode configuration.**Resistance heating :**Different resistance heating materials and their properties, causes of failures.- Direct and indirect resistance heating furnace. Design of resistance elements.
**Electric welding :**Resistance and arc welding and equipment for such welding.**Electrolysis :**Application of electrolysis, electro deposition, electro extraction, electro refining.

**Control Theory**

**Group A**

**Continuous – time systems :**Performance specifications in time – domain and frequency domain. Correlation between time domain and frequency domain specifications.- Error coefficients. Design approaches. Frequency domain vs. S – plane design. Types of compensation. Controllability and observability of control systems.
**Cascade compensation :**Lead, lag, and lag – lead compensators. Use of Bode diagram. Root locus, and Nyquist diagram for compensator design. Feedback compensator design, use of inverse Nyquist diagram, minor loop feedback compensation. PID controllers. Linear state variable feedback. Pole placement using state variable feedback.**Nonlinear systems :**Types of common non – linearities. Properties of non – linear systems. Available techniques for analysing non – linear systems. Linearising approximations. Describing function techniques. Detecting limit crycling and instability. Phase plane methods. Lyapunov’s stability criterion. Popov’s Method for stability analysis of non – linear systems.

**Group B**

**Discrete – time systems :**Introduction to discrete – time systems.- Z – transforms, inverse Z – transforms and bi – linear transformations.
- Pulse transfer functions. Tune response of sampled data systems. Effect of sample hold and dead times.
**Frequency response :**Bode plots, polar plots and gain ( db ) vs. phase plots. Stability using Jury criterion, Routh – Hurwitz criterion, Nyquist criterion, Bode plot and root locus. Design of compensators in Z – domain and W – domain.- State space representation of discrete systems and sampled – data systems. Deriving Z – transfer function model from state model of discrete systems. Solving time – invariant state equations. State transition matrix. Controllability and observability of time – invariant discrete systems.

**Process Control Systems**

**Group A**

- Process control principles, process control block diagram, loop components – sensor and transmitter, controller, final control element. Process transfer functions – process lag and dead time, self – regulating and non – self – regulating

processes. **Process instrumentation diagram :**Symbols and interconnections.- Process control sensors and transmitter, thermal sensors, mechanical sensors, analog signal conditioning – instrumentation amplifier, signal isolation, and filter.
- Analog signal transmission systems.
- Analog process controller, P, PI, PD and PID modes of operation, controller – tuning methods, on – off controllers, anti – integral windup, anti – derivative kick and controller saturation. Velocity or incremental controller. Design of analog process controller. Pneumatic process controllers – pneumatic amplifiers and relays.
- Digital process controllers – theory. Digital controller in a process control loop, analog – todigital and digital – to – analog converters. Realization of digital controller.
**Final control elements :**Actuators, positioners and control valves.**Recorders :**Analog, digital and data loggers.

**Group B**

- Control loop characteristics. Controllability and stability – root locus and Bode plot techniques.
- Control schemes. Ratio – control, cascade control, feed forward control and multi – loop controlP1D control. Process loop tuning – process reaction method. Ziegler – Nichols method and frequency response methods.
- Characteristics of chemical processes. Heat exchangers, distillation columns, chemical reactors, pH and blending processes, delay time and its effect. Flow control, pressure control, level control, and temperature control. Boiler control – feed water control, drum – level control, combustion control and 3 – point control.
- Computer control of processes. Direct digital control and supervisory control. Adaptive control systems.

**Instrumentation Systems**

**Group A **

**Instrument performance characteristics and specifications :**Static and dynamic, analog and digital instruments. Errors in measurements – error, correction, precision, accuracy, statistical analysis of errors, mean, median, mode, standard deviation. Confidence intervals.- Cathode Ray Oscilloscope ( CRO ), use of CRO in voltage measurements and waveform display.
- Measurements of kVAh and kVARh in three – phase load, trivector meter, summation metering, summation current transformer. Use of IVD in impedance comparison, low resistance comparison by using IVD.
- Study of bridge balance convergence and bridge sensitivity in four – arm a.c. bridges, quad bridge for comparison of resistance with standard calculable capacitor.

**Group B**

- A / D and D / A converters, digital voltmeters and multimeters, use of flip – flop circuits in updown counters, digital displays.
- Electrical transducers, linear variable differential transformers ( LVDT ), strain gauge, fluid flow and pressure measurements, temperature transducer, light and radiation transducer.
- Introduction to instrumentation amplifier, CMRR and active filter, sample and hold circuit, data transmission in digital instrument systems and PC, IEEE – 488 bus, introduction to long distance data transmission ( modems ).

AMIE Electrical Engineering Syllabus ( Section B ) 2021 **Page 1** | **Page 2**

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