# AMIE IEI Syllabus for Electrical Engineering

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## AMIE Electrical Engineering Syllabus ( Section B ) 2018

### Design of Electrical Systems

Group A

• Design of Load Boxes and Rheostats
• DC Machine Design : Main dimensions, output equation, choice of number of poles, choice of type of winding, design of commutator and brush gear, design of field poles and field windings.
• Armature Windings : Basic principles and classification of armature windings, single layer and double layer windings, simple and multiple windings. Different types of AC windings, commutator windings, AC winding factors. Armature reaction in AC machines, causes and elimination of harmonies. Skin effect and eddy current losses in armature conductors. Design of different types of motor starters, field regulators.

Group B

• Transformer Design : Single – phase and three – phase main dimensions, core and winding design, magnetizing current, losses, reactance of windings, tank design.
• Induction Motor Design : Three – phase – main dimensions. Stator and rotor windings. Calculation of no load and pull out currents. Torque and speed calculations.
• Distribution Design : Fixing location of distribution transformer. Plotting of load curves and determination of maximum demand. Design of distributors and feeders. Design of domestic wiring.

### Energy Systems

Group A

• Sources of conventional energy. Fossil fuels – solid fossil fuel – coal and lignite, formation, physical properties and chemical properties. Combustion equations. Coal analyses – proximate and ultimate, determination of air / fuel ratio for coal – fired boilers.
• Liquid and gaseous fossil fuels : Petroleum and natural gas. Physical and chemical properties. Combustion equations. Manufactured and byproduct gases composition, heating value, use. Air / fuel ratio for liquid and gaseous fuel boilers.
• Cogeneration and combined cycle generation. Fiuidised bed combustion. Nuclear fission reactions : Fuel isotope energy release in fission. Fertile isotopes.
• Converter and breeder reactors. Nuclear fusion – fusion reactions. Energy release in fusion. Advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion.
• Hydro energy; Run of the river and pumped storage systems. Energy and power equations. Available water head. Impulse and reaction type hydro turbines.
• Environmental effects of conventional energy conversion. Energy conservation and energy audit.

Group B

• Different forms of non – conventional energy sources : Solar, wind, geothermal, ocean, biogas, etc.
• Two types of non – conventional energy conversion processes : a ) Direct conversion to electrical energy, viz, photovoltaic, fuel cells, etc.; b ) Primary conversion to non – electrical energy viz. solar – thermal, wind – turbine, ocean – thermal, tidal, etc.
• Solar : Terrestrial solar radiation, solar – thermal conversion, techniques of collection, storage and utilization, types of solar collectors, selective surfaces, thermal processes, power generation, etc.
• Photoelectric effect, solar cells, crystalline and amorphous semiconductors as solar cell materials, equivalent circuit and efficiency considerations.
• Wind : Principles of wind power, wind – turbine operation, state characteristics, small machines, large machines.
• Geothermal and ocean : Origin and types of geothermal energy, vapour dominated systems, liquid dominated systems, flashed – steam type.
• Ocean temperature differences, open cycle, closed cycle, ocean – waves, energy and power from wave, tides, simple single pool tidal system.
• Biogas : Biogas conversion mechanisms, source of waste, simple digester, composition and calorific value of biogas.
• Chemical : Principles of electrochemical cell operation, fuel cells, different components of fuel cells, hydrogen – oxygen fuel cells, hydro – carbon fuel cells, Faraday’s law of electrolysis and thermodynamics of electrochemical energy conversion, ideal cell voltage, ideal cell efficiency, practical limitations.
• Comparative study of conventional and non – conventional energy conversion as regards efficiency, economics and environmental effects.

### Power Electronics

Group A

• Devices : Power diodes, uncontrolled rectification and power loss during transients. Bipolar junction transistor. Power MOSFET, IGBT, GTO and LASCR, UJT, UJT oscillator, its design and frequency stability.
• Driver circuit, pulse transformer and opto coupler. Thyristor, 2 – transistor analogy, triggering circuits, dv / dt and di / dt protections, snubber circuit and its design.
• Cooling and head sinks. Natural and forced commutations. DC choppers, step – down and stepup operations, thyristor choppers and switching mode regulators.

Group B

• Applications : Bl – 2, M – 2, B – 6 and M – 6 half / full controlled circuits with R and R – L loads. Principle of phase control, circuits for control and UPS. l – O and 3 – 0 cycloconverter and harmonic reduction.
• Inverters : Series inverter, domestic inverter, PWM inverter, auxiliary commutated thyristor inverters, complementary commutated thyristor inverters, current – source inverters, 12 – pulse converters and hvdc link.
• D.C. drives : one – phase semiconverter / full – converter drives, 3 – phase semiconverter / full / dualconverter drives, 2 / 4 – quadrant chopper drives.
• Induction motor drives, V / f control and closed – loop control.

### High Voltage Engineering and Power Apparatus

Group A

• Breakdown Phenomena : Breakdown of gaseous medium, mechanism of charge multiplication, secondary emission, Townsend theory, Streamer theory, Paschens law, corona, effect of polarity of voltage on corona and breakdown process.
• Breakdown of solid : Intrinsic breakdown, thermal breakdown, electro – mechanical breakdown, streamer breakdown.
• Breakdown of Liquid : Breakdown of commercial liquid, cavitation theory, bubble theory, suspended particle theory.
• Insulating materials. Properties of traditional insulating materials, SF^, vacuum, air, insulating oils, ceramics, epoxy resins, PVC, PTFF, PMMC, fibre glass, polyethylene.
• Insulation resistance. Tacking index. Electrical and mechanical properties of insulators used in transmission line. Different types of line insulators. String efficiency, bushings, general design approach of bushing.
• Cables : Different types of cables. Paper insulated cables, XLPE cables, gas – filled cables, technology and principles. Generation of travelling waves in transmission lines, reflection and transmission constants.
• Power system grounding : Solid grounding, resistance grounding, reactance grounding, grounding through earthing transformer, resonant grounding.

Group B

• Voltage surges : Lightning phenomena, lightning induced overvoltage, direct stroke, indirect stroke – Protection of power stations and sub – stations and transmission line against direct strokes.
• Protection of electrical apparatus against travelling waves. Lightning arrestors – expulsion type, valve type, magnetic blow – out type and metal oxide type.
• Insulation co – ordination : Determination of the line insulation, basic impulse level and insulation level of substation equipment. Selection of lightning arrester. Establishment of impulse withstand level. Overvoltage due to switching. Reduction of switching overvoltage.
• Generation of high voltage and current in high voltage laboratory. Generation of high AC, DC and impulse voltage. Generation of high impulse current, impulse generator, testing transformer, source resonant circuit.
• Non – destructive testing of – materials and electrical apparatus. Measurement of DC resistivity, measurement of dielectric constant and loss factors, partial discharge measurement.
• Preventive testing of insulation : High voltage testing of insulators, bushings, cables and transformers. High voltage testing of surge diverters.

### Power System Performance

Group A

• An overview of modern power system : Layout of typical power system – generating station, substation, transformer, transmission line, distribution, load. Symbols and circuit representation of various components of the system. Single line diagram.
• Per unit method of calculation : Base quantities and per unit values, modification of per unit values – due to change of base, equivalent circuit of transformer on per unit basis, choice of base quantities for power system analysis, advantages of per unit method of calculation, per unit impedance diagram of a power system.
• Symmetrical components : Transformation of voltage, current and impedance to symmetrical component system, complex power in terms of transformed voltage and currents, positive, negative and zero sequence impedances of different power system components; equivalent circuits in terms of symmetrical component quantities, advantage of symmetrical component representation.
• Fault studies : Symmetrical three – phase fault calculation, fault MVA and circuit breaker capacity, current limiting reactor, their placement and usefulness.
• Unsymmetrical faults, classification, analysis of L – G, L – L and L – L – G fault using symmetrical components, equivalent circuit for representation of different kinds of faults, calculation of fault current and post – fault voltages. Arcing ground, its consequences and remedy.
• Load flow study : The basic load flow problem and its importance, classification of system bus bars, formulation of load flow equations using bus admittance matrix, tteiative solution of load flow equations by Gauss – Seidel method, acceleration for convergence.
• Economic load despatch : Generation cost, incremental cost, optimal loading of generators on a common bus bar, transmission loss formula, incremental transmission loss, generation scheduling taking care of transmission loss.

Group B

• High voltage d.c. transmission : Historical review, merits and limitations of d.c. transmission, kinds of d.c. links, constitution of d.c. links, terminal equipment transformer, converter, choke and filter; gate control and operation of three – phase thyristor bridge as rectifier and inverter, relationship between input and output voltage and current in the bridge convener, active and reactive power; control of current and voltage in a d.c. link, back – to – back connection and its usefulness.
• Power system control : Automatic load frequency and voltage control, speed governor, load sharing among synchronous generators, exciter, brushless excitation system.
• Power system stability : Transient power output of a synchronous machine, effect of voltage regulator and governor on enhancement of transient stability. The swing equations in multimachine system, numerical method of solution of swing equations and assessment of transient stability.
• Power system protection : Electromagnetic relays, construction and operating principle of attracted armature, induction disc and induction cup type relay, inverse time lag relay, plug setting and time setting arrangement.
• Overvoltage, overcurrent, earth fault and neutral displacement protection. Primary and backup protection, co – ordination of overcurrent relays in radial feeder protection, directional overcurrent relay, ring main and parallel feeder protection.
• Distance protection for transmission lines, three zone protection, tripping circuit, impedance setting for earth fault and phase fault types relays. Errors in distance measurement, arcing fault, power swing, directional, reactance, mho, ohm and quadrilateral characteristics.
• Differential protection schemes for generator and transformer, other protections of generator and transformer.
• Pilot wire relays for feeders and cables, carrier relays – blocking and inter – tripping schemes, carrier equipment, carrier phase comparison.

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