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ITSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2018 – Page 2
Some Basic Concepts : Measurement in chemistry (Precision, significant figures, SI units, Dimensional analysis). Laws of chemical combination. Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, mole concept, Molar Mass, determination of Molecular formula. Chemical equation, stoichiometry of Chemical reactions.
States of Matter : Gaseous state, measurable properties of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro’s hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton’s law of partial pressures. Kinetic molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas), deviation form ideal behaviour. The solid state ( classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals ). Imperfection in solids, electrical, magnetic and dielectic properties of solids. Liquid state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface tension, Viscosity ).
Atomic Structure : Constituents of the atom ( discovery of electron, rutherford model of the atom ). Electronic structure of atoms – nature of light and electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, bohr’s model of hydrogen, shortcomings of the bohr model. Dual nature of matter and radiation. de-Broglie relation. The uncertainty principle, Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom, Orbitals and Quantum numbers. Shapes of orbitals. Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule, Electronic Configuration of atoms.
Solutions : Types of solutions, Units of concentration, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Colligative properties. Determination of molecular mass. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
Chemical Energetics and Thermodynamics : Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy, Internal energy and Enthalpy changes, Origin of Enthalpy change in a reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation, numericals based on these concepts. Enthalpies of reactions( Enthalpy of neutralization, Enthalpy of combustion, Enthalpy of fusion and vaporization ). Sources of energy ( conservation of energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source ). First law of thermodynamics; Relation between Internal energy and Enthalpy, application of first law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics : Entropy, Gibbs energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, Gibbs energy change and chemical equilibrium, Gibbs energy available for useful work.
Chemical Equilibrium : Equilibria involving physical changes ( solid-liquid, liquid-gas equilibrium involving
dissolution of solids in liquids, gases in liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes). Equilibria involving chemical systems ( the law of chemical equilibrium, the magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems ). Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium ( change of concentration, change of temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar’s principle ). Equilibria involving ions — ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH scale, solubility product, numericals based on these concepts.
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry : Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer concept. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (NERNST equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation number ( rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation number, nomenclature ). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations. Electrolytic conduction. Molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s Law and its applications, Voltaic cell, Electrode potential and Electromotive force, Gibb’s energy change and cell potential. Electrode potential and products of electrolysis, Fuel cells, corrosion and its prevention.
Rates of Chemical Reactions and Chemical Kinetics : Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of reaction and order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions – factors affecting rate of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalyst. Effect of light on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions. How fast are chemical reactions? Rate law expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable examples). Units of rates and specific rate constants. Order of reaction and effect of concentration (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature dependence of rate constant – Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of reaction ( only elementary idea ). Photochemical reactions.
Surface Chemistry : Surfaces: Adsorption – Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption isotherms Colloids – Preparation and general properties, Emulsions, Micelles Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, structure of catalyst, Enzymes, Zeolites.
Chemical Families – Periodic Properties : Modern periodic law, Types of elements – Representative elements ( s & p block ), Transition elements –d-block elements, inner transition elements – f-block elements ). Periodic trends in properties – ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, atomic radii, valence, periodicity in properties of compounds ).
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure : Chemical bonds and Lewis structure, shapes of molecules ( VSEPR theory ). Quantum theory of the covalent bond, hydrogen and some other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium compounds. Coordinate covalent bond, ionic bond as an extreme case of polar covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in solid state ionic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond, Resonance.
Molecules : Molecular orbital. Theory – bond order and magnetic properties of H2, O2, N2, F2 on the basis of MOT. Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals ( including shapes of simple organic molecules ), Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
Chemistry of Non-Metals – I : Hydrogen ( unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses ), Hydrides – molecular, soline and interstitial Oxygen ( occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses ), simple oxides; ozone. Water and hydrogen peroxide, structure of water molecule and its aggregates, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening, hydrogen peroxide – preparation, properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen – Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen – Ammonia, Oxides of Nitrogen, Nitric Acid – preparation, properties and uses.
Chemistry of Non-Metals – II : Boron – occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties, borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds. Carbon, inorganic compounds of carbon – oxides, halides, carbides, elemental carbon. Silicon – occurrence, preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical fertililzers. Sulphur – occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions, oxides, Sulphuric acid – preparation, properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate. Halogens – occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of halogens. Noble gases – discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses.
Chemistry of Lighter Metals : Sodium and Potassium – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds –
- NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCI, KOH.
Magnesium and calcium – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses. Important compounds
- MgCl2, MgSO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4,
plaster of paris, Bleaching Powder. Aluminium – occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds – AlCl3, alums. Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Heavy Metals : Iron – Occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron, oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper and silver – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – sulphides, halides and sulphates, photography. Zinc and Mercury – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates Tin and Lead – occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds – oxides, sulphides, halides. Chemistry of Representative Elements: Periodic properties – Trends in groups and periods (a) Oxides-nature (b) Halidesmelting points (c) Carbonates and sulphates – solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration, general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:- Group 1 elements – Alkali metals Group 2 elements – Alkaline earth metals Group 13 elements – Boron family Group 14 elements – Carbon family Group 15 elements – Nitrogen family Group 16 elements – Oxygen family Group 17 elements – Halogen family Group 18 elements – Noble gases and Hydrogen.