Engineering Entrance Exam : Bitsat : BITSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2015

BITSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2015

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BITSAT 2015 Chemistry SyllabusPage 1

1. States of Matter

  1. Measurement : Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
  2. Chemical reactions : Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
  3. Gaseous state : Gas Laws, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
  4. Liquid state : Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
  5. Solid state : Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.

2. Atomic Structure

  1. Introduction : Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model.
  2. Quantum mechanics : Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
  3. Many electron atoms : Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
  4. Periodicity : Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.

3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure

  1. Valence electrons, Ionic Bond : Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
  2. Molecular Structure : Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
  3. Covalent Bond : Valence Bond Theory – Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization ( s, p & d orbitals only ), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory – Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species ( qualitative idea only )
  4. Metallic Bond : Qualitative description.
  5. Intermolecular Forces : Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.

4. Thermodynamics

  1. Basic Concepts : Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
  2. First Law of Thermodynamics : Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities; Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law.Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution
  3. Second Law : Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium.
  4. Third Law : Introduction

5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria

  1. Concentration Units : Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
  2. Solutions : Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass solid solutions.
  3. Physical Equilibrium : Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
  4. Chemical Equilibria : Equilibrium constants ( KP, KC ), Le – Chatelier’s principle.
  5. Ionic Equilibria : Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
  6. Factors Affecting Equilibria : Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ΔG and ΔG° in Chemical Equilibria.

6. Electrochemistry

  1. Redox Reactions : Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
  2. Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.

7. Chemical Kinetics

  1. Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
  2. Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions : Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
  3. Mechanism of Reaction : Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only;

7.4 Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multi molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulations; emulsions – types of emulsions.

8. Hydrogen and s-block elements

  1. Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.
  2. s-block elements : Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii).
  3. Alkali metals : Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
  4. Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.

9. p- d- and f-block elements

  1. General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group.
  2. Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
  3. Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites.
  4. Group 15 elements : Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids ( elementary idea only ) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine.
  5. Group 16 elements : Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids, hydrides and halides of sulphur.
  6. Group 17 and group 18 elements : Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.
  7. d-block elements : General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.
  8. f-block elements: Lanthanides and actinides; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanide compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinides and lanthanides.
  9. Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.

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