BITSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2013
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BITSAT 2013 Chemistry Syllabus – Page 2
1. States of Matter
- Measurement : Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
- Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Gaseous state : Gas Laws, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state : Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state : Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description.
2. Atomic Structure
- Introduction : Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Rutherford’s picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model.
- Quantum mechanics : Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms : Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
- Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency.
3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure
- Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle, Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond.
- Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridistaion (s & p orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species.
- Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
- Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.
- Basic Concepts : Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics : Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities; Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law.Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution
- Second Law : Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium.
- Third Law: Introduction
5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria
- Concentration Units : Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions : Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass solid solutions.
- Equilibria involving physical changes ( solid-liquid, liquid – gas, solid – gas ), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
- Chemical Equilibria : Equilibrium constants ( KP, KC ), Le – Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic Equilibria : Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria : Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ΔG and ΔG° in Chemical Equilibria.
- Redox Reactions : Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, Cl2 & F2.
7. Chemical Kinetics
- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions : Concentration of the reactants, size of particles; Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
- Mechanism of Reaction : Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only;
8. Hydrogen and s-block elements
- Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide; Hydrogen as a fuel.
- s-block elements : Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships.
- Alkali metals : Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.
9. p- d- and f-block elements
- General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group.
- Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
- Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites.
- Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Reactivity and uses of nitrogen and its compounds; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids and halides of phosphorus.
- Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Production of sulphur and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids, hydrides and halides of sulphur.
- Group 17 and group 18 elements: Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of chlorine; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.
- d-block elements: General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; Ionic radii; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4, Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.
- f-block elements: Lanthanides and actinides; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanide compounds; Lanthanide contraction; Comparison of actinides and lanthanides.
- Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.
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