BITSAT Biology Syllabus

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BITSAT  Biology Syllabus

Diversity in Living World

  • Biology – its meaning and relevance to mankind
  • What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids; Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
  • Introductory classification of living organisms ( Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system );
  • Plant kingdom – Salient features of major groups ( Algae to Angiosperms );
  • Animal kingdom – Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.

Cell: The Unit of Life; Structure and Function 

  • Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system ( ER, Golgi apparatus / Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles ); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
  • Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
  • Cell cycle ( various phases ); Mitosis; Meiosis.
  • Biomolecules – Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
  • Enzymes – Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.

Genetics and Evolution

  • Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
  • Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
  • DNA – its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation;
  • Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
  • Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

Structure and Function – Plants

  • Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants; Anatomy and function of root, stem ( including modifications ), leaf, inflorescence, flower ( including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation ), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
  • Absorption and movement of water ( including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell ) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
  • Mineral nutrition – Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
  • Photosynthesis – Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors.
  • Respiration – Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

Structure and Function – Animals

  • Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases.
  • Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
  • Excretion system – Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
  • Locomotion and movement – Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
  • Control and co-ordination – Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.

Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

  • Asexual methods of reproduction;
  • Sexual Reproduction – Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination ( Types and agents ); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit ( including parthenocarpy and elminth ).
  • Growth and Movement – Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement;
  • Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo – periodism; Vernalisation;
  • Various types of movements.

Reproduction and Development in Humans

  • Male and female reproductive systems;
  • Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation;
  • Embryo development;
  • Pregnancy and parturition;
  • Birth control and contraception.

Ecology and Environment

  • Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
  • Ecological levels of organization ( organism to biosphere ); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax. Ecosystem – Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web;
  • Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
  • Ecological adaptations – Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
  • Biodiversity and Environmental Issues – Meaning, types and conservation strategies ( Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries ), Air and Water Pollution ( sources and major pollutants ); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control ( including an idea of bioremediation ); Deforestation; Extinction of species ( Hot Spots ).

Biology and Human Welfare

  • Animal husbandry – Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and elminthes, and their control.
  • Cancer; AIDS.
  • Adolescence and drug / alcohol abuse;
  • Basic concepts of immunology.
  • Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

Biotechnology and its Applications

  • Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
  • Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production ( alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics ), sewage treatment and energy generation.
  • Steps in recombinant DNA technology – restriction enzymes, NA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants
  • Applications of R-DNA technology in human health – Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy.
  • Applications in Industry and Agriculture – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses, GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.

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