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BITSAT Chemistry Syllabus
States of Matter
- Measurement : Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
- Chemical reactions : Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points. Gaseous state : Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, Kinetic theory – Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state : Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state : Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell – Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals – diamond & graphite, metals. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids – qualitative description. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors.
- Introduction : Radioactivity, Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations.
- Quantum mechanics : Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom : Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes ( s, p, and d ), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms : Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
- Periodicity : Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table ; Types of elements : s, p, d, and f blocks ; Periodic trends : ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure
- Valence electrons, Ionic Bond : Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
- Molecular Structure : Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond : Valence Bond Theory – Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization ( s, p & d orbitals only ), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory – Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species ( qualitative idea only )
- Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.
- Basic Concepts : Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics : Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities and specific heats, measurements of ∆U and ∆H, Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law.Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution
- Second Law : Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium.
- Third Law : Introduction
Physical and Chemical Equilibria
- Concentration Units : Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions : Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass , solid solutions, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action
- Physical Equilibrium : Equilibria involving physical changes ( solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas ), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
- Chemical Equilibria : Equilibrium constants ( KP, KC ), Le – Chatelier’s principle.
- Ionic Equilibria : Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases ( Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted ) and their dissociation; degree of ionization, Ionization of Water, ionization of polybasic acids, pH; Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria : Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of ΔG and ΔG° in Chemical Equilibria.
- Redox Reactions : Oxidation-reduction reactions ( electron transfer concept ); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; Variations of conductivity with concentration, Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al.
- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment ); Activation energy.
Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multi molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, coagulations; emulsions–types of emulsions.
Hydrogen and s-block elements
- Hydrogen : Element : unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen : preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.
- s-block elements : Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties ( ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii ).
- Alkali metals : Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals : Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4.
p- d- and f-block elements
- General : Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group.
- Group 13 elements : Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
- Group 14 elements : Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes ( graphite, diamond, fullerenes ), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses
- Group 15 elements : Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Haber’s process, properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Properties and Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers – NPK type; Production of phosphorus; Allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids ( elementary idea only ) and halides of phosphorus, phosphine.
- Group 16 elements : Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation, structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur; Preparation/production properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids ( structures only ).
- Group 17 and group 18 elements : Structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of halogens ( structures only ); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCl; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Uses of Group 18 elements, Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides, and oxoacids.
- d-Block elements : General trends in the chemistry of first row transition elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Color; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc, and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7, KMnO4.
- f-Block elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
- Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds ( in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin ); Bonding: Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory ( qualitative ); Isomerism including stereoisomerisms.
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