Engineering Entrance Exam Question Bank CD

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AP ECET FDH 2017 Engineering  Syllabus

Bio – Technology

Basic Industrial Biotechnology : Production Strains, Production media, Types of Media, Carbon, Nitrogen Sources, Biopesticides, Biofertilizers.

Bio-Physics : Bio-Physics and Cell doctrine, Cell theory and Atomic theory, types of microscopes, Biological membranes, Applications of Bio-Physics.

Genetics and Cell Biology : Mendelism and its variations, Linkage, Cell division, Chromosome Structure, Chromosome Aberrations, Genetic mechanism of Sex Determination, Sex-Linked genes, holandric genes.

Microbiology : Classification of Micro Organisms, Nutrition in Micro Organisms, Growth – measurement of microbial growth, culture media, synthetic complex media, Importance and isolation of pure cultures and primary stock cultures, preservation of cultures, control of micro organisms, dis-infection and sterilization methods, chemical agents, physical agents, different classes of disinfections.

Bio-Reactor Engineering : Classification of bioreactors, Energy balance of bioreactors, selectivity and optimization of bioreactors, design and analysis of bioreactors, introduction to microprocessors and their applications in bioreactors control, safety regulations and decontamination procedures practiced in the operation of bioreactors.

Molecular Biology – Genetic Engineering : Nucleic acids – Structure of DNA, RNA, replication of DNA, Organisation of nuclear genome, gene numbers, essential and nonessential genes, charge ff rule, one gene, one enzyme hypothesis – Phenyl ketonuria, alkaptonuria and albinism, protein synthesis, applications of Genetic Engineering.

Plant Bio-Technology : Tissue culture, techniques, application of plant tissue culture, protoplast technology – isolation, culture of protoplasts, regeneration of cell wall and callus formation – protoplast fusion. Genetic engineering through plasmids, Ti Plasmid, gene transfer in plants – Symbiotic N2 fixation, plant protection, applications – methods.

Animal Bio- Technology : Animal cell and tissue culture, Animal organ culture techniques – Advantages – Limitations and applications, production of transgenic animals by microinjection, future prospects of transgenesis, Cell culture products.

Bio-Informatics : Bio-Informatics in biology and medicine, bio-molecules and biopolymers, genome analysis.

Enzyme Engineering : Classification of Enzymes, Applications, Physical and Chemical techniques for enzyme immobilization – advantages and disadvantages of immobilization techniques. Structure of Enzymes – Primary and secondary structure and peptide bond.

Ceramic Technology

Geology And Mineralogy of Ceramic Raw Materials : Definition of Geology, Petrology and Mineralogy, Ceramic minerals, Ceramic Clays and their classification, Physical properties of Clays, Grog and its properties, Types of Silica Minerals, Types of Alumina Minerals, Feldspar group Minerals, Carbonate minerals, Bone ash, Fly ash. 

White Ware & Heavy Clay Ware : Machinery and equipment used in ceramic industry. Body preparation. Fabrication methods. Drying of Clay products. Setting and Firing of Clay products. Classification of Earthenware, Porcelain ware, Special Porcelain ware, Bone china, Sanitary ware, Heavy Clay ware, Floor and Wall Tiles. Glazes, Frits, Colors and decoration. Quality control.

Refractories : Classification, properties and Fabrication techniques of Refractories. Insulating Refractories. Kiln furniture and accessories. Refractory Cements and mortors.Alumino silicate Refractories, Silica Refractories, Dolomite Refractories,Magnesite Refractories,Chrome-Magnasite Refractories, Mag-Chrome Refractories, Carbon Refractories, Chromite Refractories. Super Refractories properties and uses.

Glass Technology : Raw materials, Classification of glass making raw materials, Batch preparation, weighing, mixing, Conveying and Charging, Glass melting process, Types of furnaces, Types of fabrication techniques for Containers, Sheet glass, Float glass,optical glasses,safety glass,Tubes, Annealing, Tempering, Decoration, Testing and Quality Control of glass, Special glasses, Heat resistant glasses, Fiber glass, Glass ceramics.

Cement Technology : Raw materials, lime stone and limes, Batch preparation, Mixing, Types of manufacturing process, Natural Cements, Portland Cements, Special Cements, Rotary kiln.

Advanced Ceramics : Purification of raw materials, shaping techniques, and firing techniques, Electrical Ceramics, Electronic Ceramics, Ceramic Composites, Magnetic Ceramics, Nuclear Ceramics and other Structural Ceramics. Stabilised Zirconia and products, Alumina products.

Fuels, Furnaces & Pyrometry : Construction and working of Industrial Pyrometers, furnaces used in glass industry, enamel industry, Kilns used in Ceramic industry, Types of fuels, Advantages and disadvantages of different physical state of Fuels, Combustion, Classification of fuels, NCES & RES, Hydrogen gas.

Enamels and Glazes : Raw materials, Enamel Compositions, Batch preparation, Metal treatment of enamels, Application of enamel and firing of enamels, Defects and decoration, Batch compositions of glazes, Glaze preparation, Firing, Defects and testing of Lead glazes, Leadless glazes, Feldspathic & Calcareous glazes.

Chemical Engineering

Material technology : Mechanical properties of metals and Testing of materials – thermal equilibrium diagram- Production of Iron-plain carbon steels, alloy steels – Miscellaneous materials – Glass, carbon, graphite, rubber, elastomers, fiberglass and FRP etc.. – Corrosioncauses, types, methods of prevention.

Chemical process principles : Determination of molarity, molality & normality, analysis of solids , liquids and gases on dry and wet basis , Daltons law , ideal gas equation of state , vapor pressure boiling point and freezing point , elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point-uses, Bypassing ,Recycling & purge streams – uses , limiting component , excess reactant , percentage conversion & yield and degree of completion , Material balances with and without chemical reactions, law of conservation of energy , heat of reaction , heat of formation , and heat of combustion – related problems , gross and net calorific values , theoretical air and excess air calculations.

Organic Chemical Technology : Coal chemicals, coking of coal, coal tar distillation, petroleum refining-atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation , fluid catalytic cracking , catalytic reforming , petrochemicals from methane and ethylene , pulp and paper industry , oils , fats and soaps ,sugar & fermentation, rubber industries.

Inorganic Chemical Technology : Water-sources, impurities-treatment-dissolved solidsion exchange process and Reverse Osmosis (RO) process, manufacture of chemicals like, soda ash, ammonia, Urea, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, Super Phosphate and industrial Gases ,paints, pigments and varnishes, graphite and silicon carbide and cement.

Fluid mechanics : Flow of incompressible fluids, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity, Bernoulli’s theorem, friction losses, flow meters, different types of pumps for transportation of fluids, Flow past immersed bodies, fluidization – packed bed and fluidized bed.

Heat transfer : Conduction – mechanisms of heat flow – Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, steady state conduction- compound resistances in series, heat flow through a cylinder – related problems. Convection – heat flow in fluids- rate of heat transfer, average temperature of fluid stream – Overall heat transfer coefficient – LMTD – Fouling factors – Heat transfer to fluids with and without phase change. Radiation – fundamentals, emission of radiation, black body radiation, laws of black body radiation – radiation between surfaces.- Heat Exchange Equipment – types of heat exchange equipment, counter current and parallel current flows.- Evaporation – liquid characteristics and important properties, types of evaporators, condensers, ejectors- evaporator economy- single and multiple effect –related problems..

Mechanical unit operations : Size reduction methods, laws of size reduction- crushers and grinders. different types of equipments for mixing dry powders, differential and cumulative screen analysis, screen effectiveness, average particle size, storage of solids, conveyers, froth floatation, electrostatic precipitator ,scrubber, cyclone separators, filtration, sedimentation.

Thermodynamics and Reaction Engineering : 1st law of Thermodynamics, PVT relationships for gases, 2nd law of Thermodynamics, refrigeration and liquefaction, determination of equilibrium constant and conversion, Temperature and Pressure effects on reactions – Arhenius equation. Basic equations & working of batch, tubular and stirred tank reactors, catalysis. 

Mass Transfer : Principles of diffusion, inter phase mass transfer, distillation, absorption and adsorption, humidification, membrane separation, extraction and leaching, drying, crystallization.

Instrumentation & process control : Static and dynamic characteristics of an instrument-step input, linear input, sinusoidal inputs, measurement of temperature, pressure, vacuum, liquid levels and composition. process instrumentation, diagrams and process control, different types of controllers, concepts of DCS and PLC.

Environmental Studies and Pollution Control Engineering : Scope and importance of environmental studies, segments, Eco systems, bio diversity, water pollution, types, classification, treatment methods, air pollution, types, classification, analysis, control methods, solid waste management, sources, classification, disposal, pollution control in sugar, fertilizer & petroleum industries, legal aspects.

Energy Technology & Plant Operation : Classification of energy sources-Solid, Liquid, and Gaseous fuels – Combustion principles, Refractories, Furnaces – Blast Furnace, LD Converter – Nuclear Energy, Solar Energy, Wind Energy and Bio-Energy – Energy Conservation – Industrial Hazards and Prevention -Safety and first Aid

Civil Engineering :

Strength of Materials : Unit : 1 Simple stresses and strains – curves for ductile materials – Mechanical properties of materials – Hooke’s lawlateral strain – Poisson’s ratio – Elastic constants and the relation between them – Composite sections – Resilience – Strain energy – Gradual and sudden loading – Shear force and Bending Moment Diagrams for cantilever, Simply supported, fixed, continuous and overhanging beams subjected to Point loads and UDL

Unit :2 Theory of simple bending – assumptions – bending equation – bending stresses – Section Modulus – Shear stress distribution across various sections like rectangular, circular and I – sections – Torsion – solid and hollow circular shafts

Theory of Structures : Unit : 3 Deflection of cantilevers and simply supported beams – Double Integration and Macaulay’s methods – Mohr’s theorems for slope and deflections – calculation for propped cantilevers subjected to simple loading – Analysis of Fixed and Continuous beams of uniform section for simple loading without sinking of supports. Columns and struts – typesslenderness ratio – Euler’s and Rankine’s formulae for axial loading. Determination of forces in members of statically determinate, plane and pin – jointed trusses for dead loads only. Dams and retaining walls – conditions for stabilitymiddle third rule – Rankine’s formula for active earth pressure.

R C C. Unit : 4 Grades of concrete, characteristic strength, Modulus of Elasticity – I.S. 456 – 2000 – Philosophy of Limit state design. Limit state of Strength and Serviceability, partial safety factor – design strength of materials and design loadsassumptions. Analysis and Limit state design of rectangular beams – Singly, Doubly reinforced and T – beams. Shear in RCC beams, lintels and sunshades – Development length. Slabs – analysis and limit state design of one – way and two – way slabs as per IS.456 – 2000. Torsion reinforcement. Design of continuous slabs and beams – Deflection check for Slabs and beams. Detailing of reinforcement in Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced simply supported beams of rectangular sections and lintels, one way and two way slabs.

Unit : 5 Columns : Codal provisions of I.S 456 – 2000 – short and long columns – different shapes – design of short columns by limit state method – long columns – concept, effective length for different end conditions. Footings – Isolated column footings – one way shear and two way shear. Stairs – types, loads on stairs.

Working stress method of design : Basic principles, neutral axis, lever arm – Design and analysis of Singly reinforced simply supported rectangular beams. Comparison of Limit state and Working stress methods.

Surveying : Unit : 6 Chain surveying- purpose and principle- errors and corrections- different operations in chain surveying- obstacles – methods of calculation of area. Compass Surveying- purpose and principle- bearings- traversing using prismatic compasslocal attraction- errors. Levelling- definitions- component parts- errors- classification of levelling- contouring- characteristics and methods. Theodolite- principles and component parts- fundamental lines and relationship among them- adjustments of theodolite- measurement of horizontal and vertical angles- errors- traverse computations- bowditch and transit rule. Tacheometry- principle- stadia tacheometrytangential tacheometry, Principle and uses of E.D.M, Electronic Theodolite, Total Station, Global positioning System – Importance, G.I.S – Use and applications in Civil Engineering

Hydraulics : Unit : 7 Fluid properties – specific weight –mass density – specific gravity – surface tension – capillarity – viscosity. Atmospheric pressure, gauge pressure and absolute pressure. Fluid pressure on plane surfaces – Centre of pressure, measurement of fluid pressure using piezometer and manometers. Types of flows – uniform, non uniform, steady, un steady, laminar and turbulent flows. Energies of liquid in motion – continuity equation. Bernoulli’s theorem – Pitot tube – Venturimeter. Flow thorough small and large orifices, free orifices, submerged orifices, co – efficients of orifices – Cc, Cv and Cd. Flow through internal, external, convergent and divergent mouthpieces. Types of Notches – rectangular and triangular, flow over notches. Types of Weirs – sharp crested and broad crested – mathematical formulae for discharge – Franci’s and Bazin’s.

Unit : 8 Flow through pipes – major and minor losses – Chezy’s and Darcy’s formulae for loss of head due to friction – HGL & TEL – flow through siphon pipes. Reynold’s number for laminar and turbulent flows. Flow through open channelsrectangular and trapezoidal – chezy’s formula for discharge – Kutter’s and Manning’s equation for Chezy’s constants – Most economical sections. Centrifugal pumps without problems. Classification of Turbines – Kaplan, Franci’s and Pelton wheel without problems – use of Draft tube. Hydro – electrical installations – components and uses.

Irrigation Engineering : Unit : 9 Necessity of Irrigations – Perennial and inundation Irrigation , Flow and Lift Irrigation, Principal crops-kharif and rabi seasons-Duty, delta and base period. Methods of Irrigation-check flooding, basin flooding, contour bunding, furrow, sprinkler and drip Irrigations. Hydrology – Rainfall , types of Rain gauges, types of catchments-rainfall and runoff. Measurement of velocity of flow in streams-Ryve‘s and Dicken‘s formulae for computing maximum flood discharge. Classifications of Head works-component parts of diversion head works. Weirs and Barrages. Percolation and uplift pressures.Types of Reservoirs-dead storage, live storage and surcharge storage.

Unit : 10 Storage Head works – different types of dams – rigid and non rigid dams – gravity dams – low and high dams. Elementary profile of a dam. Failures of gravity dams – drainage galleries. Ogee and siphon spillways. Earth dams— types, failures and precautions. Phreatic lines and drainage arrangements in earthen dams. Distribution worksclassifications and alignment of canals – typical cross section of a canal – berm and balanced depth of cutting – canal lining. Lacey’s silt theory. Cross drainage works –types and functions.

Computer Science and Engineering

Digital Electronics : Logic Families: TTL, ECL, MOS – Logic gates AND,OR,NOT,NOR,NAND and XOR – Boolean Expressions – K-map –Combinational Circuits – Flip-flops – registers – Counters – decoders, multiplexers and semiconductor memories.

Microprocessors : 8086 microprocessor – architecture, segmentation concepts – register organization – addressing modes – instruction set – preliminary features of 80286, 80386 and 80486

Computer Organization : Functional blocks of CPU – Fixed point, floating point number representations –instructions – addressing modes – stored program concept – instruction execution – memory hierarchy – virtual memory, associative memory – cache memory – I/O organization – methods of data transfer – programmed I/O, DMA, Interrupts – IOP

C and Data Structures : Data types, storage classes, operators and expressions – control statements – functions, parameter passing, Call by value, Call by reference – arrays, strings, pointers, structures, unions – type definitions – pre processor statements – files – Data Structures – Linked Lists – queues and stacks – trees, binary trees – sorting : bubble, selection , insertion, quick and merge sorts -Searching : linear and binary search techniques

Computer Networks : OSI reference model , TCP/IP reference model- Classification of networks –Network topologies : Bus, Ring, Star, Mesh, Hybrid – LAN components – Coaxial, twisted pair, optical fiber cables and connectors – repeaters, hubs, switches, NIC – Ethernet, token bus, token ring, inter network packet exchange/sequenced packet exchange – HTTP, FTP, SMTP, Telnet – TCP/IP addressing scheme – IP address classes – sub netting

Operating Systems : Windows : advantages, features, hardware requirements, various menus and tool bars – operating system services – process management – CPU scheduling algorithms – deadlocks – memory management – overlays, paging, segmentation, virtual memory, page replacement algorithms – disk scheduling – free space management – disk scheduling algorithms

RDBMS : Need of database systems, data independence, Data models, E-R model – structure of relational database – normal Forms : 1st, 2nd and 3rd– SQL – data types, operators, DDL,DML and DCL commands – views, sequences, synonyms, indexes and clusters – PL/SQL – data types, control structures, cursor management, exceptions, functions, triggers, procedures and packages

Object Oriented Programming Through C++ : Concept of OOPs – classes and objects – Constructors and destructors – arrays, pointers, references, inline functions – function overloading and operator overloading – inheritance – virtual functions – friend functions – this pointer – i/o manipulators – file and i/o functions

Java Programming : Java – data types, variables, operators, arrays – Classes and objects – methods – constructors – overloading –inheritance – Visibility mode – packages – interfaces – multithreading – exception handling – applets

10. Internet Programming & : Internet fundamentals – HTML, tags, attributes, formatting text –PHP- Loops, Strings, Statements, Arrays, Functions, Databases, Cookies, Sessions, Debugging. adapters, Data sets, Connection objects and Command objects.

Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering :

Unit – 1 : Electrical Engineering : Ohm’s law – Kirchhoff’s law – star – delta transformation – basics of D.C Machines, motors and generators – A.C. machines – Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.

Unit – 2 : Industrial electronics and control engineering : Photo transistor, photo conductive device , photo multiplier , solar cell , opto-coupler, dot matrix and seven segment displays, bar graph, basic principles of induction heating, dielectric heating and resistance welding, generation and applications of ultrasonics.- basics of open loop and closed loop control systems-Transfer functions-signal flow graphs-Time response of first order and Second order system-concept of stability ( Routh Hurwitz and Root locus )

Unit – 3 : Electronics : Resistor, capacitor and inductor specifications and applications of transformers, basics of switches , fuses , relays and microphones , Semi conductor materials, PN junction formation, forward and reverse biasing voltages, formation ,working and configurations of PNP and NPN transistors , Zener diode , FET , MOSFET , UJT , diode as rectifier ,C,LC and CLC filter circuits , RC coupled amplifier , transformer coupled amplifier , Darlington and cascaded amplifier , Class-A and Class-B push-pull amplifier , complementary type power amplifier, oscillator principle , RC phase shift and wien bridge oscillator , Boot strap sweep circuit , miller sweep circuit , bistable , astable and monostable multivibrator using transistor.

Unit – 4 : Digital Electronics : Number systems, logic gates, half adder and subtractor, full adder, RS, T, D and Master – slave JK type flip – flops, counters, up / down counter, ring counter, Registers, shift registers, universal shift register, basic memories ( RAM and ROM ), ADC ( Counter method, Successive approximation method ) and DAC.( R – 2R method, Binary weighted method )

Unit – 5 : Electronic Measuring instruments : Analog Instruments – Extension of range of Ammeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter – FET voltmeter – Differential voltmeter – Digital instruments – Ramp –Dual Slope integration – successive approximation – digital frequency meter. CRO – CRT – time base generator – deflection sensitivity – triggered sweep circuits – CRO applications -AF Oscillator – RF Signal generator – AF and RF Power meters – Q meter – Distortion Factor Meter – Digital IC tester – Logic and Spectrum Analyzer

Unit – 6 : Process Instrumentation : Fundamentals of instrumentation, basic transducer theory for the measurement of displacement( LVDT, Potentiometer, inductive, capacitive ), angular velocity, temperature ( Thermometers, RTD, Thermo couple, thermister, Pyrometers ), pressure ( elastic elements, Strain gauge,piezo electric ), Flow ( Head type flow meters, rotameter, Electromagnetic flow meter, anemometers, Ultrasonic flow meter ), PH, conductivity, weight, humidity, level, viscosity and density, detection of alpha, Beta and Gamma particles,

Unit – 7 : Process Control : On – off Control, Proportional, Integral and Derivative Controllers, PID Controller, Tuning of PID Controller, Actuators ( Pneumatic, electro – pneumatic Hydraulic ) basics of control valves, Cascade Controller, Ratio Controller, Adaptive Control, Line Diagrams, Letter Codes, Basic of CNC Machine, Basics of Robot.

Unit – 8 : Communications and Linear IC Applications : Need and Types of Modulation, SSB, DSB and VSB transmission, AM and FM Transmitters, AM and FM Detectors, Basics of Pulse Modulation and Applications, Optical Fibre Communication, Characteristics of Operational Amplifier, Applications of Operational Amplifier like ( Summer, Integrator, Differentiator, Inverter, Voltage Follower, V to I Converter, I to V Converter, Comparator, Square wave Generator, Mono Stable Multivibrator, Astable multivibrator, Wienbridge Oscillator, Instrumentation Amplifier, Schmitt Trigger, ADC and DAC ), Applications of 555 timer, Phase locked loop.

Unit – 9 : Analytical and biomedical instrumentation : Electromagnetic Spectrum, Beer Lamberts Law, Mono Chromator, Light Sources and Detectors, Spectrophotometer ( UV, Visible, IR ), Flame Photometer, Spectroflourometer, Polarimeter, Gas Analyzer, Mass Spectrometer, Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography, Basics of Diagnostic Equipment ECG, EEG,EMG Blood flow measurement, Pace Maker, Defibrillator, X – Ray Equipment., CAT

Unit – 10 : Microcontroller & PLCs : Architecture and Instruction set of 8051 Micro controller, interfacing peripherals ( 8255, 8251, 8257 and 8259 ) and applications of 8051.Basics of PLC-Architecture and instruction set of PLC and applications.

Electrical & Electronics Engineering :

Unit I : – Basic Electrical Engineering Ohms and Kirchhoff’s Laws, star / delta transformation, Network theorems, Power and Energy, Heating effects of Electric current, Magnetic effects, Electromagnetic Induction, Electrostatics, Batteries, Types of Electrical Engineering Materials – Conducting, Semi – conducting, Magnetic, Insulating, Di – electric – Properties and Uses.

Unit II : D.C. Machines Batteries & Measuring Instruments :

D.C. Generators : Construction, Operation, types, EMF Equation, Windings, Characteristics, Efficiency and Parallel operation.

DC Motors :  Principle of operation, Back EMF, Torque Equation, Types, armature reaction. Characteristics, Starters, Speed Control, Losses, Efficiency and Testing, Batteries

Measuring Instruments : Classification, Principle of Operation of moving Coil, Moving Iron, Dynamometer type, Induction type meters, Instrument Transformers, Induction type Energy meter, M.D. Indicator, TRI VECTOR Meter, PF meter, Frequency meter, Measurement of Resistance, Transducers and Sensors – Types, Thermistor, Thermocouple, Pressure Transducers and Strain gauges.


Unit III : – A.C. Circuits and Transformers :

A.C. Circuits : Fundamentals, Series and parallel R – L – C Circuits, Resonant circuits, Polyphase Circuits, Measurement of power by 2 Wattmeters.

Transformer : Single – phase Transformer, Construction, Operation, Equivalent circuit, regulation, efficiency, Testing and Parallel operation, Accessories of Transformers and Cooling. Three – phase Transformers, Auto – Transformers.

Unit IV : – A.C. Machines :

Alternators : Construction, Operation, EMF equation, regulation, testing and parallel operation.

Synchronous Motors : Operation and performance, effects of Excitation, ‘V’ – Curve and inverted ‘V’ – Curve, methods of Starting and uses.

Three – Phase induction Motors : Construction, Principle of Operation, Torque Equation, Slip – torque characteristics, losses, efficiency, speed control, starters, double – cage motor.

Single – phase Induction Motor : Types, Principle of operation, applications. Single – phase commutator motors : Types, Principle of operation and applications

Unit V : – Power System Generation & Protection :

Generating Stations : Working, Components, Comparison of Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear stations. Pollution control, Combined Working, Power Stations auxiliaries, Characteristic Curves and Important Terms, types of tariffs, power factor correction and economy.

Power Systems Protection : Circuit Breakers – Types, Principles of operation and uses, Current Limiting reactors, Relays – Classification, Principle of Operation of Induction type over current relay, Directional and Non directional relays, differential relays and distance relays, Protection of alternators, Transformers, Bus – bars, Transmission lines, Lightening arrestors, neutral grounding.

Unit VI : – Transmission and Distribution :

Transmission and distribution : Types of supply systems, Transmission line parameters, inductance and capacitance, performance of short and medium lines, regulation, Ferranti effect, Corona, Basic concepts of HVDC Transmission, Advantage and disadvantages of HVDC Transmission.

Components of lines, supports, conductor spacing, ground clearance and sag, insulators, voltage distribution across the string, string efficiency, methods of improving string efficiency. Earthing and layout of sub – stations. Cables – Classification, insulation resistance, specifications. Distribution – Radial and ring distributors, variation of load voltage.

Unit VII : Electric Traction :

Electric Traction : Systems of Train Electrification, Speed – time Curves for different services, Schedule speed, Tractive Effort, Specific Energy Consumption, Traction system auxiliaries, Traction motor.

Unit VIII : – Electrical Estimation :

Electric Wiring : Tools, Wires, Types of wiring, Accessories, Lamp Circuits, Estimating and costing of domestic, industrial, power, irrigation pump sets, over head lines and 11KV Substations, Rural electrification, departmental tests, earthing, maintenance of electrical machines.

Unit IX : Basic Electronics and Digital Electronics :

Semi – Conductor devices : N type & P type,, Zener diode, PNP and NPN Transistors, Transistor configurations, characteristics, power supplies – half and full wave rectifiers, Filters, Zener diode regulation, Special devices – UJT, FET, LED, SCR, Opto Coupler, Photo diode, Photo Transistor, CRO and Timers

Amplifiers : Types, Principles of operation, Characteristics.

Oscillators : Types, operation and application of each.

Digital Electronics : Different numbering systems, inter Conversions Boolean Algebra, Logic families, performance of AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND gates, combinational Logic Circuits, sequential logic circuits, Resistors and Memories, A/D and D/A converters.

Unit X : Power Electronics and Micro Controller :

Power Electronic Devices : Construction and working of SCR, GTOSCR, DIAC, TRIAC, Volt – ampere characteristics, Triggering of SCR using UJT, Protection.

Converters, AC regulators, Choppers, Inverters and Cycloconverters :

Types of Converters, working of AC regulators and Choppers. Types of inverters, Principles of working, Basic principle of working of Cyclo converters. Speed control of D.C. Motors by using converters and choppers, Speed control of induction motor by using AC Voltage regulators – V / F Control, Switched mode power supplies ( SMPS ), UPS.

Micro Controllers : Architecture of 8051, instruction set of 8051, programming concepts, peripheral ICS – Function, features.

Electronics and Communication Engineering

1. Electronic Devices and Circuits : Semiconductor diodes – varactor diode – zener diode – Clippers and clampers-Transistors– FETs – UJT (characteristics only) – Power supplies – Rectifiers and Filters – HW, FW and Bridge type – RC , LC and CLC filters – Series and Shunt regulators – Transistor amplifiers – CE,CC and CB configurations – Biasing techniques-RC coupled – Transformer coupled amplifiers Differential amplifiers – Feedback, Power and Tuned amplifiers – Operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications – RC , LC and Crystal oscillators – Astable , Bistable and Monostable Multivibrators using Transistors and 555 timers- Schmitt Trigger – Sweep circuits – Miller and Bootstrap circuits.

2. Circuit Theory : Mesh current and Node voltage analysis – Crammer’s Rule – Network theorems – Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Maximum Power transfer, Superposition and Reciprocity theorems– Series and Parallel Resonance – Qfactor – Selectivity – Bandwidth – Linear wave shaping circuits. Transmission Lines – Characteristic Impedance – Reflection Coefficient – SWR – Transmission Line losses and Impedance matching.

3. Electronic Measuring Instruments : Analog Instruments – Extension of range of Ammeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter – FET voltmeter – Differential voltmeter – Digital instruments – Ramp –Dual Slope integration – successive approximation – digital frequency meter-digital LCR meterCRO – CRT – time base generator – deflection sensitivity – triggered sweep circuits – CRO applications, AF Oscillator – RF Signal generator – AF and RF Power meters – Q meter – Distortion Factor Meter – Digital IC tester

4. Industrial and Power Electronics : Thyristor family – SCR ,TRIAC, Power BJT –IGBT (characteristics, working principle and applications) – Converters – Single phase HW , FW fully controlled – Choppers – modes of operation – Inverters and Cycloconverters – Series and Parallel Inverters– PWM inverters, Sinusoidal three phase inverters – Single phase center tapped cycloconverters – Speed control of AC / DC motors using converters and choppers. – SMPS – Off Line and On Line UPS – Opto electronic devices – LDR, Photo diode and transistor and Photo voltaic cell (characteristics and applications) – Transducers – LVDT – Strain Gauge, Thermistor, Thermocouple – Ultrasonics – Pulse echo flaw detector

5. Communication Systems : Analog – Need for modulation – Types of modulation – AM , FM , PM – Modulation Index – Bandwidth – Power requirements – Transmitters – Low level , High level and SSB types – Receivers – Super heterodyne – AM and FM receivers – characteristics – Sensitivity , Selectivity , Fidelity – IMRR and choice of IF – Wave Propagation – Ground , Sky and Space waves – Properties. Digital – Pulse modulation – PCM , Delta modulation – Data codes – Synchronous and Asynchronous transmission – error detection and correction – digital modulation – ASK ,FSK, PSK and QAM – generation and detection – Multiplexing – TDM , FDM – Multiple Access – TDMA.

6. Advanced Communication Systems :  Antennas– radiation resistance – beam width – polarization – directivity – efficiency – bandwidth – gain – front to back ratio – folded dipole – arrays – broadside – end fire – Yagi , Log periodic , Turnstile antennas – Parabolic reflectors – beam width, gain and applications. Wave Guides – Rectangular – Dominant mode – Phase and Group velocity – Cut off wavelength – working principle and applications of Magnetron , Klystron ,TWT – Radar – range equation – Pulsed radars – indicators – duplexers – CW radars and MTI radars – Satellite communication – UP link and DOWN link frequencies – types of satellites – satellite on board – earth station systems – satellite applications – Fiber Optic communication – types of fibers – couplers, splices, connectors, switches , optical emitters and detectors – optical repeaters – Wave length Division multiplexing – Mobile Communication – cellular concept – AMPS , GSM , CDMA systems.

7. Digital Electronics : Number systems – Logic gates – Boolean algebra – Adders and Subtractors – Flip-flops – Registers and Counters – Memories – RAM, ROM, Flash ROM, NVROM – D/A converters – binary weighted – R-2R Ladder, A /D Converter – Counter and Successive approximation types.

8. Microcontrollers and Microprocessors : 8051 Architecture – Instruction Set – subroutines – use of input and output machine related statements – time delay program – assembler directives – peripheral ICs – 8251, 8255, and 8257– 8086 Architecture – Instruction Set – Features of Pentium and its Derivatives.

9. Audio Video Systems : Recording and Reproduction of Sound using Magnetic and Optical methods – Television Picture elements – scanning and synchronization – blanking and interlacing – composite video signal , flicker – camera tubes – Image Orthicon – Silicon Diode array – TV receivers – Tuner, IF , Sync separator , deflection circuits , EHT and sound circuits – Color TV – Additive and subtractive mixing – Color Picture tubes – degaussing – types of color TV systems – NTSC , PAL and SECAM – PAL system processing – DTH system

10. Data Communications and Computer Networks : Transmission Media – twisted pair – UTP –STP – Coaxial cable – Optical fibre – comparison – Shannon Capacity theorem – Network Topologies – BUS, STAR, RING – switching – Packet and Message switching – OSI architecture and functions – CSMA, CDMA, FDDI and token ring – properties and operations – Wireless LAN – Blue tooth technology – WAN architecture – Packet transmission – ARPA Net – ISP and ISDN architectures – WAN Protocols – X .25, Frame Relay, ATM,TCP / IP features and comparison –Ports and Sockets – Domain Name System – POP and SMTP server – File transfer protocol – Proxy server and Web server architecture –  – Web Browser Architecture.

Mechanical Engineering

Unit I : Workshop Technology : Basis Workshop tools and Operations ( carpentry, fitting and sheet metal ) Metrology – linear, angular and surface measurement – comparators. Working and operations of lathe, Drilling, Shaper, slotter, Planner, milling machines – Capstan and turret lathes – copying lathes – surface finishing operations – Honing, lapping, super finishing, electro plating, metal spraying. Basic components of NC, CNC, and DNC machines – FMS and robotics, CNC part programming – Manual and Computer assisted

Unit II : Welding, Forging, Foundry and Conventions in drawing : Equipment used in arc and gas welding. Modern welding methods – Submerged arc, atomic, hydrogen, Co2, and ultra sonic welding. Forging processes and tools – Cold and hot working processes. Pattern types – types of molding sand and their properties – Defects in casting and welding. Conventions in machine drawing – production drawing – limits, fits & Tolerances – surface finish – Specifications of standard components like Bolts, Nuts, Bearings etc.

Unit III : Engineering Materials, and Solid Mechanics :Mechanical properties of materials – Destructive and Non destructive testing of materials, Production of Iron and Steel – Iron Carbon equilibrium Diagram – Heat treatment processes – Plain Carbon and alloy steels – Ferrous and Non ferrous metals and alloys – Powder metallurgy . Resolution of Forces, Simple Machines, Simple stresses and strains – Shear force and bending moment diagrams – Strain energy – Deflection of beams.

Unit IV : Design of Machine Elements : Belt, rope and chain drives – Velocity ratio, Belt tensions and centrifugal tension – Effect of belt thickness – Slip, lengths of open and cross belting – Power transmitted by belt, Simple, Compound, and epicyclic gear trains – Roller and Silent chains – Design of – Bolts, Nuts and Screws – Shafts, Keys, Couplings – Thin cylindrical Shells – Springs, cams, Flywheels and Governors

Unit V : Thermodynamics : Laws of Perfect gases and Basic thermo dynamics, Thermodynamic processes, Air standard Cycles, fuels and combustion, I.C Engines – two and four stroke engines – Petrol and Diesel engines, Indicated and brake powers, Indicated and brake thermal efficiencies, Air Compressors, Gas turbines and Jet propulsion.

Unit VI : Hydraulic Machines and Pneumatics : Properties of Fluids , Flow through pipes, Impact of Jets, Hydraulic turbines, Governing, Working principles and operation of reciprocating and centrifugal pumps, Hydraulic and pneumatic Circuit devices, air cylinders and Hydro Pneumatic Systems.

Unit VII : Steam Boilers, Nozzlers and Turbines : Properties of Steam, Working, Performance of Boilers, Steam nozzles, Condition for maximum discharge – steam turbines – classification, Velocity diagrams for single stage impulse turbine and Reaction turbine.

Unit VIII : Refrigeration : Methods of refrigeration, Cycles and Analysis – Air, Vapor Compression and vapor absorption refrigeration, refrigeration equipment

Unit IX : Industrial Management and Engineering : Work study, Inspection and SQC, Estimation and Costing,– Principles and function of management, organization structures, Production and materials management, financial management, entrepreneurial development, Marketing and sales, Principles of ISO 9000.

Unit X : Automobile Engineering : Automobile Chassis construction, Function of transmission system, Gear boxes, single and multiplate clutches, Function and construction of propeller shaft, Universal Joint, Differential, semi and full floating rear axle, Front and Stub axles, wheel alignment and balancing, steering mechanisms. Braking system – weight transfer during braking, skidding, Hydraulic braking and air pressure braking systems.

Metallurgical Engineering

1. Elementary Principles of Metallurgy : Introduction to metallurgy –ores & ore dressing, Methods of ore sampling – Communition – Screening – Classification – Quantifying concentration operations – Principles and processes of Pyro, hydro and electrometallurgy – Minerals of commercially important metals.

2. Fuels, Refractories and Pyrometry : Classification of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels – Testing and properties of important fuels – Manufacture and characteristics of Metallurgical Coke – Combustion of fuels – Properties, manufacture and selection of Refractories, Principles and operation of important pyrometers.

3. Metallurgical Thermoidynamics : Introduction and applications of thermodynamics –First Law of thermodynamics- Thermo chemistry – Second Law of thermodynamics – Ellingham diagrams – Fugacity, activity and equilibrium constant -Phase equilibria – Solutions

4. Physical Metallurgy : Structure of metals and Alloys – Solidification – Diffusion – Binary thermal equilibrium diagrams – Iron – carbon diagram – important non – ferrous binary alloy systems – Microscopic and macroscopic examination of metals and alloys.

5. Heat Treatment Technology : Heat treatment of plain carbon steels – Annealing, Normalizing, Hardening and tempering of steels – TTT diagrams – Hardenability – Grain size, Quenching media Alloy steels – Effect of alloying elements on plain carbon steels – Stainless steels, tool steels – Case hardening techniques, Special heat treatment techniques such as Austempering, Mar tempering, sub – zero treatment – Heat treatment of Non – ferrous metals and alloys – Age hardening – Heat Treatment Furnaces.

6. Ferrous Extractive Metaqllurgy : Iron ores and preparation of iron ores – Blast furnace plant and equipment – blast furnace reactions – irregularities and recent trends – sponge iron – methods of production – Ferroalloys –types and applications. Steel making by Bessemer, LD, Kaldo, OLP, Open hearth and Electric furnaces –New techniques in steel making – Vacuum treatment of liquid steel – Ingot defects – Continuous casting.

7. Non – Ferrous Extractive Metallurgy : Extraction of copper – Pyro and hydrometallurgical methods, refining – Aluminum – Extraction, Anode effect, Refining, Zinc and Lead – Pyro and hydrometallurgical extraction and refining, Extraction of Magnesium by Dows and pidgeon processes, Extraction of Titanium by Kroll’s process – Refining by Van arkell’s process – Extraction of Thorium and Zirconium.

8. Material Testing : Tension test – stress – strain relations, necking phenomenon. Hardness test – principles and types, Impact testing – Notched bar impact tests. Transition temperature. Fatigue – Stress cycles, S – N diagram, Factors affecting. Creep testing – creep curve, Stress – rupture test, Non – destructive testing – Principles, methods and applications of liquid penetrant, Radiography, Ultrasonic Magnetic particle and Eddy current test.

9. Mechanical Metallurgy : Plastic deformation of metals – lattice defects –Slip and Twinning – CRSS – Strengthening mechanisms. Strain hardening – Hot and Cold working – Recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth. Metal forming processes – Rolling, Forging, Extrusion, Sheet metal forming processes and defects – Thermo mechanical treatments –isoforming and ausforming. Powder metallurgy. Methods of powder production, Characterization, Compaction, Sintering and applications of Powder Metallurgy.

10. Foundry Technology : Patterns : Types, materials and pattern allowances, Moulding Sands – properties and Testing, Moulding Processes and equipment : Sand casting, Die casting, Shell moulding, Centrifugal casting, Investment casting and CO2 process – Cores : Types of Cores and properties, pouring and feeding of castings. Cast irons – types, Melting of Cast irons – Grey, S.G and Malleable iron. Aluminium, Copper and Steel Foundry practices. Defects in Castings. Cleaning & Salvage of Castings.

11. Welding Technology : Basic concepts of Welding – Principles and processes of various welding techniques such as Oxy – acetylene, Shield Arc welding, Inert gas welding – TIG and MIG – Special welding processes – Plasma, resistance, electro slag, electron beam, thermit and Laser. Soldering and brazing– Weldability, factors affecting weldabiity – Heat affected Zone, Microstructure – Post weld treatments –Welding defects –Inspection and testing.

Mining Engineering :

1. Elements of Mining : Definitions of Terms, Mineral based industries, Mining operations, modes of entry, shaft, incline, adit-applicable conditions, Mining Methods used in coal and Non coal mining, Classification of the mineral deposits based on various factors, classification of coal seams based on various factors. Classification of methods of working-U/G Coal, OCM & Metal Mining, , Bore( Drill ) holes uses, classification and various tools used in boring(Drilling), feed mechanism, core recovery, deviation of boreholes. Explosives- Characteristics, classification, composition, properties, different explosives used in U/G, OCM, Metal and coal mines, selection of explosives and initiation of explosives, Detonators- types, Blasting practice in Mines- terms, tools, sequence of shot firing, drill patterns types, misfires, blown out shots, sockets, treatment of misfires, accidents due to explosives and shot firing, preventive measures, Mine Gases- types, physical and chemical properties, physiological effects and occurrence. Shaft sinking methods – sinking through normal strata, Special methods of shaft sinking pilling, drop shaft method, cementation, freezing method. Temporary, permanent lining of shafts, Support systems in Mining their applicability and withdrawal of supports.

2. Mining Geology : Definition of the term Geology, scope, uses of geology in Mining field, Branches of geology, Age of the earth, origin of the earth – Nebular hypothesis of kant and Laplace, Physical Geology, internal structure of earth, weathering, erosion, denudation, Attrition, Abrasion, Earthquakes, its propagation, intensity, causes and effects of earthquakes. Valcanoes and its classification,. Mineralogy – Physical characteristics of minerals, important mineral families, industrial uses of important minerals; Occurrence and distribution in A.P and India. Petrology – Classification of Rocks and its characteristics, structures and textures. Structural Geology, folds,.faults, joints, unconformities. Geological time scale, major stratigraphical divisions of India, Physio – graphic divisions of India, Economic Geology – Terms, processes of mineralization and important economic minerals formed by these processes. Geological prospecting – objectives, guide lines for location of mineral deposits in fields, methods of prospecting. GIS and Remote sensing concepts.

3. Methods of Working – Coal : Methods of working Bord and pillar and long wall – development, opening of districts,different methods of development systems with machines and continuous miners, depillaring. Longwall mining – Long wall advancing, longwall retreating, applicabilities, merits, demerits, limitations. Special methods of working like inclined slicing, horizontal slicing, blasting gallery, horizon mining. Stowing practice in mines, manual and mechanized. modern trends of open cast coal methods.

4. Methods of Working Metal : Definitions : Development of mineral deposits, levels, sublevels, Winzes and Raises etc. Handling waste rock and mineral, Drilling and blasting, arrangement for loading, conventional and mechanized methods of raising, various stopping methods, Sampling, Problems associated with deep mining, rockmechanics and stratacontrol measures in deep mines.

5. Mine Environmental Engineering – 1 : Ventilation, objectives/purposes of ventilation, systems of ventilation – natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation. Distribution of mine alr, ventilation devices, construction location and application. Auxiliary ventilation, Booster ventilation, Homotropal, anti – tropal systems, Gas detectors – types, uses, application, principles, determination percentage of gases using conventional methods and using detectors,

6. Mine Environmental Engineering – 2 : Mine fires, classification, causes preventive measures. spontaneous heating of coal, different methods of dealing with fires, Collection of air samples and interpretation of Mine air samples, , Ventilation survey , types, instruments, Mine Explosions – Types, Fire damp explosions-causes and preventive measures, Coal dust explosionscauses and preventive measures, treating coal dust, dust barriers, water barriers. Rescue and Recovery. Operations, objectives, classification of rescue apparatus, Resucitation apparatus, rescue organization. Inundation in mines, its causes, precautions, design of dams. Mine lighting, purpose, Terms, Places to be illuminated in the mines. Flame safety lamp- Different types, construction details. Miners diseases, causes and preventive measures.

7. Mine Surveying : Definitions, Principles, classifications, Measurement of distances. Various instruments used in Surveying, chain survey, Fundamentals of compass survey, limitation of various surveying methods, various methods of leveling, types of levels, instruments, adjustments, computations, theodolite types, adjustments, traversing and computations, setting out curves, types, correlation survey, tachometric survey and triangulation Survey.

8. Mining Machinery – 1 : Wire ropes – usage, chemical composition, tests of wires, classification, applicability of different wire ropes, causes of deterioration and precautions, capping, recapping methods and rope splicing, Transportation in mines – classification different types of rope haulages, their applicability, merits and demerits limitations. Safety devices in different rope haulages, Locomotive haulagestypes, applicability’s, Conveyors – types, tensioning arrangements, use and applicability in mines, Aerial ropeways, man riding applicability’s, Pumps their applicability in mines, construction details merits, demerits and limitations.

9. Mining Machinery – 2 : Coal face machinery, different Drills, Power loaders, Longwall face machinery – AFC, lump breakers, stage loaders, power pack, SERDS,DERDS, safety devices, power support, Mine cables – types, constructional details, Flame proof apparatus and Intrinsically safe apparatus – field of applications, features, remote control principle, Signaling methods used in mines, telephones, Winding – purpose, equipment, types of headgear frames, shaft fittings, guides, Pit top and pit bottom arrangements, keps, suspension gear, types of drums, drum and skip winding, Cage winding and Friction ( Keope Winding ) speed control and safety contrivances.

10. Mining Legislation and Mine Management : Mines – Act, Mine – Rules and regulations provisions of Mine Act in respect of drinking water, Health, Hygiene, etc., Medical facilities. Limitations of employment, leave with wages, etc., Coal Mines/Metal Mines Regulations – Definitions duties of manager, over man, safety officer, under manager etc., Transport, Mine working ventilation etc., Precautions against dangers from fire, dust gas, water etc., Mine lighting and safety. Industrial Dispute Act, Causes disputes work committee, strikes, lock out. Mine Management – Organization structure, safety in mines and Mine accidents. Entrepreneurship, self employment scheme, market and demand survey, quality systems concepts, quality policy, quality control, quality assurance, ISO 9000, features, draw backs, recruitment, qualifications, training programmes, work – study.

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