GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2015
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GATE 2015 Biotechnology Syllabus ( BT )
Linear Algebra : Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
Differential Equations : Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Microbiology : Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism ( aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis ); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics ( plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation ); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.
Biochemistry : Biomolecules and their conformation; Ramachandran map; Weak inter – molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism ( Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation ); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction.
Molecular Biology and Genetics : Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.
Process Biotechnology : Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary / secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exo-polysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.
Bioprocess Engineering : Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.
Plant and Animal Biotechnology : Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.
Characteristics of Animal Cells : Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro – carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.
Immunology : The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Recombinant DNA Technology : Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.
Bioinformatics : Major bioinformatics resources ( NCBI, EBI, ExPASy ); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis ( biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny ); Genomics and Proteomics ( Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays ); Molecular modeling and simulations ( basic concepts including concept of force fields ).
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