GATE Biotechnology Syllabus ( BT )
Section 1 : Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra : Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus : Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series.
Differential Equations : Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE – Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics : Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods : Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Section 2 : General Biotechnology
Biochemistry : Biomolecules – structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes – classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism ( carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids ) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
Microbiology : Viruses – structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity ( bacterial, algal and fungal ); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host – pathogen interaction
Cell Biology : Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell – Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction
Molecular Biology and Genetics : Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics ( plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation ); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases
Analytical Techniques : Principles of microscopy – light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation – high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy – UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR; Principles of chromatography – ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray.
Immunology : History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen – antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Bioinformatics : Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis ( biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny );Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations ( basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein – ligand interaction )
Section 3 : Recombinant DNA Technology
Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In – situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site – directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy
Section 4 : Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non – anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro – carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals
Section 5 : Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology
Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non – ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale – up, economics and feasibility analysis
Engineering principle of bioprocessing – Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary / secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts ( enzymes and cells ) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes.