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GATE 2019 Botany Syllabus

Section 1 : Plant Systematics

Major systems of classification, plant groups, phylogenetic relationships and molecular systematics.

Section 2 : Plant Anatomy

Plant cell structure and its components; cell wall and membranes; organization, organelles, cytoskeleton, anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral parts, embryo and young seedlings, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Section 3 : Morphogenesis & Development

Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and germination.

Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

Section 4 : Physiology and Biochemistry

Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration; respiration, Flowering : photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging, biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, ( proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid ), enzyme kinetics.

Section 5 : Genetics

Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization, regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations ( numerical and structural ), transposons.

Section 6 : Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification

Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability, haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker – assisted selection, gene transfer methods viz. direct and vector – mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Section 7 : Economic Botany

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants – cereals, pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes, gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and bacteria.

Section 8 : Plant Pathology

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism( s ) of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant – microbe beneficial interactions.

Section 9 : Ecology and Environment

Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming, speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation, phytoremediation.

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