GATE Food Technology Syllabus 2016
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GATE 2016 Food Technology Syllabus :
Food Chemistry and Nutrition
Carbohydrates : structure and functional properties of mono -, oligo -, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre, gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins : classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of muscles. Lipids : classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism. Pigments : carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin. Food flavours : terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines. Enzymes : specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning. Nutrition : balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co – factors, anti – nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes : changes occur in foods during different processing.
Characteristics of microorganisms : morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram – staining. Microbial growth : growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage : spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals and their products. Toxins from microbes : pathogens and non – pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages : curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya – sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage
Food Products Technology
Processing principles : thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods. Food packaging and storage : packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal processing and products : milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil processing : expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and vegetables processing : extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products : tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk products processing : pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products : drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization : pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by – products from rice milling. Food standards and quality maintenance : FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place ( CIP ).
Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer : Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat transfer : heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass transfer : molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations : size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations : thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze – drying, freezing and crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychrometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.
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