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GATE 2019 Microbiology Syllabus
Section 1 : Historical Perspective
Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.
Section 2 : Methods in Microbiology
Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light -, phase contrast – and electron – microscopy.
Section 3 : Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity
Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial taxonomy.
Section 4 : Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells : Structure and Function
Prokaryotic Cells : Cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Section 5 : Microbial Growth
Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.
Section 6 : Control of Micro – organisms
Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Section 7 : Microbial Metabolism
Energetics : redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism; Glycolysis; Pentose – phosphate pathway; Entner – Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids; Regulation of major metabolic pathways.
Section 8 : Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction
Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection; Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.
Section 8 : Chemotherapy / Antibiotics
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics : Classification, mode of action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.
Section 9 : Microbial Genetics
Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression: repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic concept of microbial genomics.
Section 10 : Microbial Ecology
Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms associated with vascular plants.