# GATE Physics Syllabus

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**GATE Physics ( PH ) Syllabus**

**Section 1 : Mathematical Physics**

Linear vector space : basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis : Cauchy Riemann conditions, Cauchy’s theorems, singularities, residue theorem and applications; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors : covariant and contravariant tensor, Levi – Civita and Christoffel symbols.

**Section 2 : Classical Mechanics**

D’Alembert’s principle, cyclic coordinates, variational principle, Lagrange’s equation of motion, central force and scattering problems, rigid body motion; small oscillations, Hamilton’s formalisms; Poisson bracket; special theory of relativity : Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass ‐ energy equivalence.

**Section 3 : Electromagnetic Theory **

Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems; dielectrics and conductors; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization; Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

**Section 4 : Quantum Mechanics **

Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one -, two – and three – dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, transmission through one dimensional potential barriers, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom; linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

**Section 5 : Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics**

Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose ‐ Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, phase equilibria, critical point.

**Section 6 : Atomic and Molecular Physics **

Spectra of one ‐ and many ‐ electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck ‐ Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR, ESR, X – ray spectra; lasers : Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.

**Section 7 : Solid State Physics & Electronics **

Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids : nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals, semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity : Type – I and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation.

Semiconductor devices : diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors; operational amplifiers : negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators; regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip ‐ flops, counters, registers, A / D and D / A conversion.

**Section 8 : Nuclear and Particle Physics **

Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model : semi ‐ empirical mass formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; alpha decay, beta ‐ decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.