**GVSAT 2021 Syllabus**

**GVSAT Mathematics Syllabus 2021**

**Algebra**

Algebra of complex numbers, addition, multiplication, conjugation, polar representation, properties of modulus and principal argument, triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometric interpretations.

Quadratic equations with real coefficients, relations between roots and coefficients, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, symmetric functions of roots.

Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sums of finite arithmetic and geometric progressions, infinite geometric series, sums of squares and cubes of the first n natural numbers.

Logarithms and their properties.

Permutations and combinations, Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, properties of binomial coefficients.

Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers, equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by a scalar and product of matrices, transpose of a matrix, determinant of a square matrix of order up to three, inverse of a square matrix of order up to three, properties of these matrix operations, diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices and their properties, solutions of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

Addition and multiplication rules of probability, conditional probability, independence of events, computation of probability of events using permutations and combinations.

**Trigonometry**

Trigonometric functions, their periodicity and graphs, addition and subtraction formulae, formulae involving multiple and sub-multiple angles, general solution of trigonometric equations.

Relations between sides and angles of a triangle, sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and the area of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions ( principal value only ).

**Analytical Geometry**

Two dimensions : Cartesian coordinates, distance between two points, section formulae, shift of origin

Equation of a straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line.Lines through the point of intersection of two given lines, equation of the bisector of the angle between two lines, concurrency of lines, centroid, orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of a triangle.

Equation of a circle in various forms, equations of tangent, normal and chord.

Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of a circle with a straight line or a circle, equation of a circle through the points of intersection of two circles and those of a circle and a straight line.

Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices and eccentricity, parametric equations, equations of tangent and normal.

**Locus Problem**

Three dimensions : Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation of a straight line in space, equation of a plane, distance of a point from a plane.

**Differential Calculus**

Real valued functions of a real variable, into, onto and one-to-one functions, sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, composite functions, absolute value, polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Limit and continuity of a function, limit and continuity of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, L’’Hospital rule of evaluation of limits of functions.

Even and odd functions, inverse of a function, continuity of composite functions, intermediate value property of continuous functions.

Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions, chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up to order two, geometrical interpretation of the derivative, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions, maximum and minimum values of a function, applications of Rolle’s Theorem and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem.

**Integral Calculus**

Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard functions, definite integrals and their properties, application of the Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus

Integration by parts, integration by the methods of substitution and partial fractions, application of definite integrals to the determination of areas involving simple curves.

Formation of ordinary differential equations, solution of homogeneous differential equations, variables separable method, linear first order differential equations.

**Vectors**

Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication, scalar products, dot and cross products, scalar triple products and their geometrical interpretations.

**GVSAT 2021 Physics Syllabus**

**Mechanics :** Kinematics in one and two dimensions ( Cartesian coordinates only ), projectiles; Circular motion ( uniform and non-uniform ); Relative velocity.

Newton’s laws of motion; Inertial and uniformly accelerated frames of reference; Static and dynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy; Work and power; Conservation of linear momentum and mechanical energy.

Systems of particles; Centre of mass and its motion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.

Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field; Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of planets and satellites in circular orbits.

Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation of angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping of rings, cylinders and spheres; Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses with rigid bodies

Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.

Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus.

Pressure in a fluid; Pascal’s law; Buoyancy; Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise; Viscosity ( Poiseuille’s equation excluded ), Stoke’s law; Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, Equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Wave motion ( plane waves only ), longitudinal and transverse waves, Superposition of waves; progressive and stationary waves; Vibration of strings and air columns. Resonance; Beats; Speed of sound in gases; Doppler effect ( in sound ).

**Thermal physics :** Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat; Heat conduction in one dimension; Elementary concepts of convection and radiation; Newton’s law of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats ( Cv and Cp for monatomic and diatomic gases ); Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulus of gases; Equivalence of heat and work; First law of thermodynamics and its applications ( only for ideal gases ) . Blackbody radiation: absorptive and emissive powers; Kirchhoff’s law, Wien’s displacement law, Stefan’s law.

**Electricity and magnetism :** Coulomb’s law; Electric field and potential; Electrical Potential energy of a system of point charges and of electrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field, Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss’s law and its application in simple cases, such as, to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Capacitance; Parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectrics; Capacitors in series and parallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.

Electric current : Ohm’s law; Series and parallel arrangements of resistances and cells; Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications; Heating effect of current.

Biot-Savart law and Ampere’s law, magnetic field near a current-carrying straight wire, along the axis of a circular coil and inside a long straight solenoid; Force on a moving charge and on a current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.

Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of a uniform magnetic field on a current loop; Moving coil galvanometer, voltmeter, ammeter and their conversions.

**Electromagnetic induction :** Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law; Self and mutual inductance; RC, LR and LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.

**Optics :** Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflection and refraction at plane and spherical surfaces; Total internal reflection; Deviation and dispersion of light by a prism; Thin lenses; Combinations of mirrors and thin lenses; Magnification.

**Wave nature of light :** Huygen’s principle, interference limited to Young’s double-slit experiment.

**Modern physics :** Atomic nucleus; Alpha, beta and gamma radiations; Law of radioactive decay; Decay constant; Half-life and mean life; Binding energy and its calculation; Fission and fusion processes; Energy calculation in these processes.

Photoelectric effect; Bohr’s theory of hydrogen-like atoms; Characteristic and continuous X rays, Moseley’s law; de Broglie wavelength of matter waves.

**GVSAT 2021 Chemistry Syllabus**

**Physical Chemistry**

**General topics :** The concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations ( based on mole concept ) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

**Gaseous and liquid states :** Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom ( qualitative treatment ), shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements ( up to atomic number 36 ); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment ( qualitative aspects only ); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules ( linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonalbipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral ).

**Chemical equilibrium :** Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle ( effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases ( Bronsted and Lewis concepts ); Hydrolysis of salts.

**Electrochemistry :** Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

**Chemical kinetics :** Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant ( Arrhenius equation ).

**Solid state :** Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems ( cell parameters a, b, c, a, b, g ), close packed structure of solids ( cubic ), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

**Solutions :** Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

**Surface chemistry **: Elementary concepts of adsorption ( excluding adsorption isotherms ); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles ( only definitions and examples) .

**Nuclear chemistry :** Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of a, b and g rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay ( decay series excluded ), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

**Inorganic Chemistry**

Isolation /preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon ( only diamond and graphite ), phosphorus and sulphur.

Preparation and properties of the following compounds : Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid ( carbonic acid ); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids ( phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid ) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides; Fertilizers: commercially available ( common ) NPK type.

Transition elements ( 3d series ) : Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour ( excluding the details of electronic transitions ) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds ( linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral ).

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate.

Ores and minerals : Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy : Chemical principles and reactions only ( industrial details excluded ); Carbon reduction method ( iron and tin ); Self reduction method ( copper and lead ); Electrolytic reduction method ( magnesium and aluminium ); Cyanide process ( silver and gold ).

Principles of qualitative analysis : Groups I to V ( only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ ); Nitrate, halides ( excluding fluoride ), sulphate, sulphide and sulphite.

**GVSAT 2021 Chemistry Syllabus**

**Organic Chemistry**

**Concepts :** Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of molecules; Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers, ( R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded ); IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds ( only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds ) ; Conformations of ethane and butane ( Newman projections ); Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enoltautomerism; Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds ( only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

**Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes :** Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes ( melting points, boiling points and density ); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

**Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes and alkynes :** Physical properties of alkenes and alkynes ( boiling points, density and dipole moments ); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes ( excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination ); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes; Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O ( X=halogen ); Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

**Reactions of benzene :** Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, mand p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

**Phenols :** Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions ( halogenation, nitration and sulphonation ); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Characteristic reactions of the following ( including those mentioned above ): Alkyl halides: rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions; Alcohols: esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2 /conc.-HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions ( Grignard addition ); Carboxylic acids: formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction; Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes – ( excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution )

**Carbohydrates :** Classification; mono and di-saccharides ( glucose and sucrose ); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

**Amino acids and peptides :** General structure ( only primary structure for peptides ) and physical properties.

**Properties and uses of some important polymers :** Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

**Practical organic chemistry :** Detection of elements ( N, S, halogens ); Detection and identification of the following functional groups : hydroxyl ( alcoholic and phenolic ), carbonyl ( aldehyde and ketone ), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of monofunctional organic compounds from binary mixtures

**GVSAT 2021 Biology Syllabus**

**XI Standard Level **

**UNIT I : Diversity in Living World**

- What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms ( three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category ); Angiospermsclassification up to class, characteristic features and examples ).
- Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level ( three to five salient features and at least two examples ).

**UNIT II : Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants**

- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed ( To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus ).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems ( digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive ) of an insect ( cockroach ).

**UNIT III : Cell Structure and Function**

- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles ( ultra structure and function ); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells : Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division : Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

**UNIT IV : Plant Physiology**

- Transport in plants : Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transportDiffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases
- Mineral nutrition : Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis ( Elementary idea ); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration : Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation ( anaerobic ), TCA cycle and electron transport system ( aerobic ); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

**UNIT V : Human Physiology**

- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals ( recall only ); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation : Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination : Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement : Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions ( To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus ); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination : Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation : Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action ( Elementary Idea ); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders ( Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmicgoiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease ). Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.

**XII Standard Level **

**UNIT I : Reproduction**

- Reproduction in organisms : Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants : Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollinationtypes, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction : Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesiss permatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation ( Elementary idea ); Parturition ( Elementary idea ); Lactation ( Elementary idea) .
- Reproductive health : Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases ( STD ); Birth controlNeed and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy ( MTP ); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT ( Elementary idea for general awareness ).

**UNIT II : Genetics and Evolution**

- Heredity and variation : Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance : Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
- Evolution : Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence ; Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation ( Mutation and Recombination ) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution

** UNIT III : Biology and Human Welfare**

- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm ); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry .
- Microbes in human welfare : In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

**UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications **

- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering ( Recombinant DNA technology ).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

**UNIT V : Ecology and environment**

- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling ( carbon and phosphorous ); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
- Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

**GVSAT GVSAT 2021 English Syllabus**

**Reading and Comprehension :**You will be asked to read passages and then answer the multiple choice questions based on the passage.

**Grammar :** These questions would test your skills in English grammar. This section contains questions like fill in the blanks, sentence correction etc.

**Vocabulary, Synonyms, Antonyms** etc.

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