Engineering Entrance Exam Question Bank CD

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JEE Main 2018 Chemistry Syllabus

Section – A : Physical Chemistry

Unit 1 : Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry

Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.

Unit 2 : States of Matter

Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.

1. Gaseous State : Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; Kinetic theory of gases ( only postulates ); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.

2. Liquid State : Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them ( qualitative treatment only ).

3. Solid State : Classification of solids : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids ( elementary idea ); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids ( fee, bcc and hcp lattices ), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical and magnetic properties.

Unit 3 : Atomic Structure

Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de – Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of ? and ?2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers ( principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers ) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half – filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit 4 : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure 

Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.

Ionic Bonding : Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.

Covalent Bonding : Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) theory and shapes of simple molecules.

Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding : Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.

Molecular Orbital Theory : Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals ( bonding, antibonding ), sigma and pi – bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.

Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.

Unit 5 : Chemical Thermodynamics

Fundamentals of thermodynamics : System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.

First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.

Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Δo? ( Standard Gibbs energy change ) and equilibrium constant.

Unit 6 : Solutions

Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage ( by volume and mass both ), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non – ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non – ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.

Unit 7 : Equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.

  • Equilibria involving physical processes : Solid – liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
  • Equilibria involving chemical processes : Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants ( Kp and Kc ) and their significance, significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
  • Ionic equilibrium : Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases ( Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis ) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria ( including multistage ionization ) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.

Unit 8 : Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry

  • Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
  • Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration : Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
  • Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells.

Unit 9 : Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions : concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions ( no derivation ).

Unit – 10 : Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
  • Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
  • Colloidal State – distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids ( micelles ), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.

Section – B : JEE Main 2018 Inorganic Chemistry Syllabus

Unit 11 : Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.

Unit 12 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals

Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction ( chemical and electrolytic methods ) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.

Unit 13 : Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit 14 : S – Block Elements ( Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals )

  • Group – 1 and 2 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
  • Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium htydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.

Unit 15 : P – Block Elements

Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements :

General Introduction : Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.

Groupwise study of the p – block elements

Group – 13 : Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.

Group – 14 : Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.

Group – 15 : Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, ( PCl3, PCl5 ); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Group – 16 : Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid ( including its industrial preparation ); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.

Group – 17 : Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.

Group – 18 : Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.

Unit 16 : D – and F – Block Elements

Transition Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2 O7 and KMnO4.

Inner Transition Elements :

Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.

Unit 17 : Co – Ordination Compounds

Introduction to co – ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co – ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding – Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of coordination compounds ( in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems ).

Unit 18 : Environmental Chemistry

  • Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.
  • Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric
  • Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants : Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
  • Particulate pollutants : Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
  • Stratospheric pollution – Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
  • Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
  • Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as : Pesticides ( insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides ), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.

JEE Main 2018 Organic Chemistry Syllabus

Section – C

Unit 19 : Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds

  • Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications.
  • Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
  • Quantitative analysis ( basic principles only ) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.

Unit 20 : Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry 

  • Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization ( s and p ); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups : and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
  • Nomenclature ( Trivial and IUPAC )
  • Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic : free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
  • Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
  • Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.

Unit 21 : Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.

Alkanes – Conformations : Sawhorse and Newman projections ( of ethane ); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.

  • Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition : addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides ( Markownikoffs and peroxide effect ); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
  • Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution : halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono – substituted benzene.

Unit 22 : Organic Compounds Containing Halogens

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C – X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform freons and DDT.

Unit 23 : Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers.
  • Alcohols : Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
  • Phenols : Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions : halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
  • Ethers : Structure.
  • Aldehyde and Ketones : Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=0 group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions ( addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives ), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction ( Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen ); acidity of ? – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
  • Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
  • Carboxylic Acids –  Acidic strength and factors affecting it.

Unit 24 : Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

  • Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
  • Diazonium Salts : Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit 25 : Polymers

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

Unit 26 : Biomolecules

General introduction and importance of biomolecules.

  • Carbohydrates – Classification : aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides ( glucose and fructose ) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides ( sucrose, lactose and maltose ).
  • Proteins – Elementary Idea of α – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins : primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure ( qualitative idea only ), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
  • Vitamins – Classification and functions.
  • Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DN A and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.

Unit 27 : Chemistry in Everyday Life

  1. Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples.
  2. Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples.
  3. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Unit 28 : Principles Related to Practical Chemistry

  • Detection of extra elements ( N, S, halogens ) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups : hydroxyl ( alcoholic and phenolic ), carbonyl ( aldehyde and ketone ), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
  • Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following : Inorganic compounds : Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic compounds : Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
  • Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic – acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4.
  • Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis :

 Keam Maths Equation

  • Chemical principles involved in the following experiments
    • Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4.
    • Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base.
    • Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols.
    • Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

Engineering Entrance Exam Question Bank CD

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