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MU OET 2021 Chemistry Syllabus
Section-A : Physical Chemistry
1. Basic concepts in Chemistry : Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory, concept of atom, molecule, element and compound. Laws of chemical combination, Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and Avogadro number, molar mass, vapour density-definition. Relationship between molecular mass and vapour density. Concept of STP conditions, gram molar volume, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, chemical equations and numerical problems in all these concepts, stoichiometry.
2. States of matter : Classification of matter – Solid, liquid and gaseous states
Gaseous state : Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Gay Lussac’s Law of combining volumes, concept of absolute temperature scale, Ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases – postulates, concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities, Expressions for r.m.s velocity and kinetic energy from the kinetic gas equation. Numerical problems. Ideal and real gases, Ideal gas equation, value of R ( SI units ) . Deviation of real gases from the ideal behaviour. PV-P curves. Causes for the deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Derivation of Van der Waal’s equation and interpretation of PV-P curves
Liquid state : Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension, effect of temp. on them.
Solid state : classifications of solids : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids, Bragg’s law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids ( fcc, bcc and hcp lattices ) voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
3. Atomic structure
Introduction – Constituents of atoms, their charge and mass. Atomic number and atomic mass. Wave nature of light, Electromagnetic spectrum-emission spectrum of hydrogen-Lyman series, Balmer series, Paschen series, Brackett series and Pfund series. Rydberg’s equation. Numerical problems involving calculation of wavelength and wave numbers of lines in the hydrogen spectrum. Atomic model- Bohr’s theory, ( derivation of equation for energy and radius not required ). Explanation of origin of lines in hydrogen spectrum. Limitations of Bohr’s theory. Dual nature of electron – distinction between a particle and a wave. de Broglie’s Theory. Matter-wave equation ( derivation ). Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle ( Qualitative ). Quantum numbers – n, l, m and s and their significance and inter relationships. Concept of orbital – shapes of s, p and d orbitals. Pauli’s exclusion principle and Aufbau principle. Energy level diagram and ( n+1 ) rule. Electronic configuration of elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 54, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals. Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.
4. Chemical bonding and molecular structure : Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic bonding : formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds, calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent bonding : valence shell electron pair repulsion ( VSEPR ) theory and shapes of simple molecules, molecular orbital theory ( MOT ) – linear combination of atomic orbitals ( Qualitative approach ) , energy level diagram, rules for filling molecular orbitals, bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbitals, bond order, electronic configuration of H2, Li2 and O2 Non-existence of He2 and paramagnetism of O2.
Metallic bonding : Electron gas theory (Electron Sea model), definition of metallic bond.
Hydrogen bonding – inter and intra molecular, properties.
5. Solutions : Methods of expressing concentration of solutions – ppm, molarity, molality, normality, mole fraction, percentage ( by volume and wt. ) , Principles of volumetric analysis- standard solution, titrations and indicators-acid-base ( phenolphthalein and methyl orange ) and redox ( Diphenylamine ) numerical problems. Vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law, Ideal and non-ideal solutions, colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point, osmotic pressure, calculation of mol. wt of a solute using colligative properties, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
6. Equilibrium : Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibrium involving physical processes : solid – liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibrium involving chemical processes : Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants ( Kpand Kc ) and their significance, significance of ∆G and ∆G” in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium, concentration, pressure, temp., effect of catalyst, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium : Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, Electrolysis -Faraday’s Laws of electrolysis, numerical problems. Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, Merits and limitations. Specific conductivity and molar conductivity – definitions and units. Strong and weak electrolytes with examples. Factors affecting the conductivity. Acid – Base theories ( Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis ) and their limitations, acid-base equilibria, ionization constants, Strengths of Acids and Bases – dissociation constants of weak acids and weak bases. Ostwald’s dilution law for weak electrolytes ( eq. derivation ) – expression for hydrogen ion concentration of weak acid and hydroxyl ion concentration of weak base – numerical problems. Ionic product of water, pH concept and pH scale. pKa and pKb values – numerical problems. Buffers, types of buffers, mechanism of buffer action, Henderson’s equation for pH of a buffer ( derivation ) , preparation of buffers of required pH -numerical problems. Common ion effect, solubility, expression for Ksp of sparingly soluble salts of types AB, AB2. Relationship between solubility and solubility product of salts of types AB, AB2. Applications of common ion effect and solubility product in qualitative analysis, numerical problems.
7. Redox reactions and Electro chemistry : Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions, Electrode potential – Definition, factors affecting single electrode potential, Standard electrode potential, Nernst’s equation for calculating single electrode potential, construction of electro-chemical cells, Daniel cell, free energy change during cell reactions ( ∆G ) . Reference electrodes – Standard Hydrogen Electrode ( SHE ) – construction, use of SHE for determination of SRP of other single electrodes and pH of solutions, Limitations of SHE. Electrochemical series and its applications, galvanic and electrolytic cells, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst eq. and its applications, working principles of dry cell, lead acid cell and H2-O2fuel cell.
8. Chemical Kinetics : Introduction, commercial importance of rate studies, Order of a reaction, factors deciding the order of a reaction-relative concentrations of the reactants and mechanism of the reaction. First order reaction – eq. for rate constant derivation, units. Half-life period, relation between half-life period and order of a reaction, numerical problems. Determination of the order of a reaction by the graphical and the Ostwald’s isolation method. Zero order, fractional order and pseudo first order reactions with illustrations. Effect of temperature on the rate of a reaction, temperature coefficient of a reaction. Arrhenius interpretation of the energy of activation and temperature dependence of the rate of reaction. Arrhenius Equation. Influence of catalyst on energy profile. Numerical problems on energy of activation.
9. Surface chemistry
Adsorption : Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions
Catalysis : Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloids : Introduction, colloidal system and particle sizes. Types of colloidal systems, Lyophilic and lyophobic sols, examples and differences. Preparation of sols by Bredig’s arc method and peptisation. Purification of sols – dialysis and electro dialysis. Properties of sols – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement electrophoresis, origin of charge, coagulation, Hardy and Schulze rule, Protective action of sols. Gold number, Gold number of gelatin and starch. Applications of colloids. Emulsions and their characteristics.
10. Chemical thermodynamics : Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for spontaneity – tendency to attain a state of minimum energy and maximum randomness. First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Entropy – a measure of randomness, change in entropy, unit of entropy. Entropy and spontaneity. Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs’ free energy as a driving force of a reaction, Gibbs’ equation, prediction of feasibility of a process in terms of ∆G, standard free energy change and its relation to Kp. Numerical problems.
Section – B : Inorganic Chemistry
11. Periodic properties : Periodic table – periods and groups. Modern periodic law and present form of periodic table, s,p,d and f block elements, atomic radii ( Van der Waal and covalent ) and ionic radii, comparison of size of cation and anion with the parent atom, size of isoelectronic ions. Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity- definition with illustrations, Fajan’s rules. Variations of atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity down the group and along the period and their interpretation.
12. Principles and processes of metal extractions : Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores, steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction ( chemical and electrolytic ) and refining with reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe. Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
13. Hydrogen : isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen. Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water, structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide, classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial, hydrogen as a fuel.
14. S-block elements : general introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of NaOH and NaHCO3. Industrial use of lime, limestone, plaster of paris and cement, biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
15. P-block elements : General electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and groups, unique behavior of first element in each group.
Group 13 : Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminum, structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluride, aluminum chloride and alums.
Group 14 : Tendency for catenation, structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group 15 : properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus, allotropic forms of phosphorus, preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides ( PCl3, PCl5 ) , structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group 16 : Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone, allotropic forms of sulphur, preparation, properties, structure and uses of sulphuric acid, structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group 17 : Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid, trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides, structures of interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group 18 : Occurrence and uses of noble gases, isolation of rare gases by Ramsay and Raleigh’s method and separation of individual gases from noble gas mixture ( Dewar’s charcoal adsorption method ) . Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
16. d and f block elements : Transition elements, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of 3d series – electronic configurations, size, variable oxidation states, colour, magnetic properties, catalytic behaviour, complex formation, interstitial compounds and alloy formation. Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids : Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids : Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
17. Co-ordination compounds : Werner’s theory – ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding – valence bond approach. Importance of co-ordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems.
18. Environmental chemistry
Environmental pollution – atmospheric, water and soil – Atmospheric pollution – tropospheric and stratospheric Tropospheric pollutants – gaseous pollutants : oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, their sources, harmful effects and prevention. Green house effect and global warming, acid rain.
Particulate pollutants – smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist, their sources, harmful effects and prevention Stratospheric pollution – formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer, its mechanism and effects.
Water pollution – major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants, their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution – major pollutants such as pesticides ( insecticides, herbicides and fungiecides ) their harmful effects and prevention.
Stratagies to control environmental pollution.
Section – C : Organic Chemistry
19. Purification and characterization of organic compounds
Purification : crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications Qualitative analysis – detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens Quantitative analysis – basic principles involved in the estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur and phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae, numerical problems in org. quantitative analysis.
20. Basic principles of organic chemistry : Tetravalency of carbon, shapes of simple molecules – hybridization ( s and p ) , classification of organic compounds based on functional groups, compounds containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. Homologues series, isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature : covalent bond fission – homolytic and heterolytic, free radicals, carbocations and carbanions. Stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond : Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation
Types of organic reactions : Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
21. Hydrocarbons : classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions
Alkanes : conformers, Sawhorse and Newman projections of ethane, mechanism of halogenation of alkanes
Alkenes : Geometrical isomerism, mechanism of electrophilic addition, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides – Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect, ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes : Acidic character, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons : Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity, mechanism of electrophilic substitution, halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
22. Organic compounds containing halogens : General methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Nature of C-X bond, mechanisms of substitution reactions, uses, environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
23. Organic compounds containing oxygen : General methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols : Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration
Phenols : Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions, halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
Ethers : Structures
Aldehyde and Ketones : Nature of carbonyl group, nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones, important reactions such as nucleophilic addition ( addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives ) , Grignard reagents, oxidation, reduction ( Wolf Kishner and Clemmnesen ) , acidity of α–hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction, chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylic acids : Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
24. Organic compounds containing Nitrogen : General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines : Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts : importance in synthetic organic chemistry
25. Polymers : General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization, natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polyethylene, nylon 6,6; polyester and bakelite.
26. Biomolecuels : general introduction and importance of biomolecules
Carbohydrates : Classification – aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides ( glucose and fructose ) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides ( sucrose, lactose and maltose )
Proteins : Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptide, proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins : Classification and functioning
Nucleic acids – chemical constitution of DNA and RNA, biological functions of nucleic acids.
27. Chemistry in everyday life
Chemicals in medicine – Analgesics, tranqilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, common examples
Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action
28. Principles related to practical chemistry
Detection of extra elements ( N, S, halogens ) in organic compounds, detection of the functional groups – hydroxyl ( alcoholic and phenolic ) , carbonyl ( aldehyde and ketone ) , carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds
Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises : Acid – Base titrations, use of indicators, Redox titrations and their indicators
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis : Cations – Pb2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+; Anions – CO32−, S2−, SO42−, NO3−, NO2−, Cl−, Br− and I−.
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