**Thapar University Syllabus 2018**

**Mathematics Syllabus **

**Algebra :** Quadratic equation, equations reducible to quadratic form, relation between roots and coefficients. Arithmetic progression, Geometric progression, series of natural numbers, partial fractions, Binomial Theorem and its applications. Trigonometry: Trigonometric ratios and their relations, Ratios of some standard angles, solution of trigonometric equations, sum and difference formulae, product formulas. Multiple and submultiple angles, solution of triangles.

**Co-ordinate Geometry :** Cartesian Co-ordinates, Equations of straight lines in various forms, Intersection of two straight lines, angles between two lines, Distance formulae, Equation of a circle in various forms, Tangent and normal to a circle.

**Differential Calculus :** Concept of a function, limit, standard limits, Continuity, Differentiation, their geometrical and physical meanings, Differentiation from first principles, Differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of a function, Differentiation of implicit functions, trigonometric functions and logarithmic differentiation.

**Integral Calculus** : Definite and Indefinite integrals, method of integration by substitution, by parts and partial fractions, Integration of rational and irrational functions.

**Physics Syllabus**

**Heat :** Heat as a form of energy, Mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule’s experiment), Specific heat of a gas, Measurement of temperature, Platinum resistance and thermoelectric thermometers, Temperature scales, kinetic interpretation of temperature. Thermal expansion. Modes of heat transfer, Searle’s method and Lee’s method for thermal conductivity, Black body radiations, Stefan’s law. Wien’s law.

**Acoustics :** Wave motion, velocity of sound, Newton’s formula and Laplace’s correction, Beats, Doppler Effect, Intensity of sound waves, Reverberation, Acoustics of buildings, Production and detection of ultrasonic waves.

**Optics :** Refraction through a compound plate, total internal reflection, Optical fiber, image formation by spherical mirrors/lenses, Lens maker’s formula, Chromatic aberration and its removal, Optical instruments- simple and compound microscopes, Astronomical telescope, Magnifying power & resolving power, Huygerns principle & its applications, Young’s double slit experiment, Diffraction through a single slit, Polarisation of light,

**Electricity and Magnetism :** Electric field and electric potential, Electric dipole and its field, Gauss’s law and applications, Energy stored in a capacitor, Dielectrics, Current Electricity, Kirchoffs laws and applications, Slide wire bridge, Potentiometer, Ammeter, Voltmeter, Thermal and chemical effects of current.

**Electromagnetism :** Magnetic effects of current, Biot-Savart law and applications, Lorentz force, moving coil galvanometers, Laws of electromagnetic induction, Mutual and self-inductance, AC generator, Alternating currents, LR, CR, LCR, circuits.

**Modern Physics :** Determination of e/m and e of electron, Bohr’s model and hydrogen spectra, Spectral series, Photoelectric effect, Matter waves.

**Chemistry Syllabus**

**Structure and bonding :** Fundamental particles, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Aufbau rule, Hund’s rule, ionic and Covalent bond, orbital concept of covalency, Hybridizsation (sp, sp2 and sp3).

** Chemical Equilibria, Electrochemistry and Redox Chemistry :** Balancing Chemical equations, Oxidation and Reduction reactions, electronic Concept, balancing redox reactions by oxidation number method. Faraday’s laws of Electrolysis and its application in Electroplating, Electrometallurgy and Electrorefining, Degree of ionisation, Equilibria in aqueous solutions, solubility product and common ion effect, Modern concepts of acid & base, their strength and ionization constant, pH value, acid base titrations, choice of indicators and Buffer solutions.

**Colloids and Water :** Particle size and colloidal state, Preparation of colloids by dispersion and condensation, Stability and properties of colloids, Tyndell effect, Brownian movement, coagulation. Hard and soft water, degree of hardness and its determination, Disadvantage of hard water in industrial use and boilers.

**Organic Chemistry :** Nomenclature of organic compounds, IUPAC system. Saturated and unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Ethane, Ethylene and Acetylene. Substitution and addition reactions (preliminary ideas). Isomerisation (Chain position, functional, cis-trans and optical), Aldehydes and Ketones, preparation, properties and qualitative tests. Polymerisation, addition and condensation polymerisation, degree of polymerisation, Linear and cross linked polymers.

**English Syllabus**

Idioms and phrases and their usage, Correction of sentences, sentence structure, sequence of tenses, Parts of speech, Words often confused in the form of pair of words, Common synonyms and antonyms, Active and Passive voice, Direct and indirect speech, Punctuation.

**Mechanical Engineering / Mechanical Engineering (Production) / Mechatronics**

**Manufacturing Process :** Dry sand and green sand casting: Casting defects: Die casting, Continuos casting and Centrifugal casting, Welding Process: Gas welding, Arc welding, Resistance welding; Thermit welding: Soldering and Brazing: Welding defects and precautions, Elements of metal cutting; Cutting tools tool geometry, cutting fluids; Lathe and Milling operations: Grinding process, grinding wheel: Introduction to Broaching and gear generation processes; Electric discharge machinery. Water Jet machining and ultrasonic machining. Forming processes: Hot and Cold working: Rolling: Punching, blanking, shearing, spinning.

**Thermal Engineering :** Basic concept of Thermodynamics : Energy, Thermodynamics systems, types (open and closed) Heat and work, specific heat, Enthalpy, laws of thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second Laws Reversible and irreversible process, Entropy. Description of various types of Boilers, boiler mountings and accessories. Basic concepts of thermal conduction, convection and radiation. Basic equations of different cases of Conduction. Convection (natural and forced) and radiation. Concept of Black, white and opaque bodies, Stefan Boltzmans laws.

**Mechanics of Solids :** Concepts of bending moment and shear force. Bending moment and shear force diagrams for cantilevers, simply supported beams, overhanging beams subjected to concentrated and U.D. Ls. Concepts of torsion. Derivation of torsion equation for circular shafts. Close coiled helical spring subjected to axial load and twisting moment, stiffness of a spring. Its angle of twist, strain energy and proof resilience.

**Metrology :** Necessity and importance of Metrology in Engineering field, standards of measurements, line and wave length: Limits, fits and tolerances. Concept of interchangeability. Angle and Taper Measurements: Slip gages and dial indicator in taper measurement. Screw Thread Measurements: Measurements of Mojor diameter. Minor diameter, effective diameter, pitch. Angle and Form of threads for external and internal threads. Comparator: Types of Comparators (Mechanical, optical, electrical, electronic and pneumatic). Limit gauges: Go and No-go gauges. Alignment tests on lathe. Drilling machine. Milling machine and grinding machine.

** Materials and Metallurgy :** Introduction to Engineering materials, ferrous and nonferrous materials: Pig iron grey and white cast iron, alloying elements in steel and their effect. High speed steel, heat resistant steel and spring steel. Aluminum and its alloys. Bearing metals. Plastic materials, refractory materials, tempering, hardening and surface hardening processes, selection of materials for different components.

**Industrial Engineering and Management :** Work study, uses of work study: Objectives and basic procedure of Method study and work measurements. Types of inspection, inspection at various stages. Quality control: its advantages: Statistical quality control. Control charts and sampling plans. Types of production: Materials requirements planning, Plant location and layout, types of layouts and their comparison. Importance and advantages of standardization. Cost reduction through standardization. Management of men, materials and machines. Types of industrial organizations: Wages and incentives, trade unions: Role of technician in industry.

**Refrigeration and Air Conditioning :** Basic concepts and principles of refrigeration: Refrigeration methods. Air refrigeration cycle, vapour compression cycle, simple vapour absorption cycle, their applications and limitations. Refrigerants: Important properties of refrigerants, properties and applications of commonly used refrigerants such as R11, R12, R22, NH3 etc. Air conditioning, its concepts. Human comfort, application of air conditioning, Description of room air conditioning, packages air conditioner, central air conditioning system.

**Theory of Machines :** Simple mechanisms: Flywheels, Co-efficient of friction, Motion of a body along horizontal and inclined planes. Friction in screw jack, friction between nut and screw square and V-threads. Concept of power transmission, various power transmission systems with their merits and demerits. Flat and V-belts drives, ratio of tensions. Horse power transmitted, centrifugal tension, condition for maximum power transmission, and function of governors. Definitions of sensitivity, stability, synchornism and hunting of governors, description and simple problems on watt, porter and Hartnell governor.

**Electronics & Communication Engineering, Electronics & Computer Engineering And Electronics ( Instrumentation & Control ) Engineering**

**Network Analysis :** Circuit laws and their applications in solving problems, Network theorems, all types of network, one port, two port, symmetrical, unsymmetrical balanced, T. Ladder, lattice, bridge, their characteristic impedance. Attenuators, filters. Concept of different types of filters, Impedance matching of filters. Transmission lines, concept and applications, characteristics impedance, different methods of loading, concepts of reflection and standing waves.

**Analog Electronics** : PN junction diode, V-I characteristics, Diode as half wave, full wave and bridge rectifier, Zener diodes, Concepts of bipolar transistors and common base common emitter, common collector configuration and parameters. Different types of amplifiers, working principles and expression of voltage gain, current gain, input impedance, output impedance, etc. Working principles of Multi-vibrators, time base, operational amplifier, timer and regulated power supply.

**Digital Electronics :** Binary and hexadecimal number system, Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Logic Gates, DE Morgan’s Theorems, K-Map, TTL and MOS families, BCD, excess-3 and Gray code, Arithmetic circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers and DeMultiplexers, flip flops, Counters, Types of RAM/ROM, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Computer Architecture and Microprocessors :** Design of basic computer, Introduction to RISC, CISC architecture, Control Unit – Hard wired and Micro programmed, Pipeline processing, Memory Hierarchy, associative memory, cache memory, virtual memory, I/O organization. CPU, Microprocessor, structure of 8085. Instruction set, addressing modes, Instruction Cycle, Register Organization, Simple programming in assembly language. Input/output operations, concept of interrupts structure, Microprocessor applications.

**Programming Language C : **Constants, variables and data types, Operators and Expressions, Control Structures, Functions, Arrays, Pointers, Strings, Structure and Unions, File Handling.

**Operating System (OS) System Software :** Compiler, Assembler, Loader, Definition, types and importance of Operating Systems, Memory organization, Process Management Functions, Job Scheduler, Process Scheduler, Process synchronization, Memory Management Function, Segmentation, Swapping, Simple Paging System, Virtual Memory, I/O Management Functions, Dedicated Devices.

**Communication Theory and Systems :** Communication systems types, types of modulation, amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, AM modulators. Demodulation of AM waves, FM waves, transmitters and radio receivers. Antenna and wave propagation. Types and areas of applications. Conducting materials, low and high resistivity materials, super conductivity. Development of modern insulating materials. Magnetic materials, permeability, Hysteresis loop, soft and hard magnetic materials. Components, Capacitor, polyster, Metallised, polyster gap ceramic, paper and electrolytic types. Resistors of different types. Transformers, Inductors and RF Coils, Printed circuit boards.

**Computer Engineering**

**Analog & Digital Electronics** : PN junction diode, V-I characteristics, Diode as half wave, full wave and bridge rectifier, Zener diodes, CB, CE, CC configuration of the transistor, Binary and hexadecimal number system, Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Logic Gates, DE Morgan’s Theorems, K-Map, TTL and MOS families, BCD, excess-3 and Gray code, Arithmetic circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers, flip flops, Counters, Types of RAM/ROM, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Programming Language C** : Constants, variables and data types, Operators and Expressions, Control Structures, Functions, Arrays, Pointers, Strings, Structure and Unions, File Handling.

**System Analysis and Design : **Systems Development Life Cycle, Feasibility Study, cost and benefit analysis, Requirement Specifications and Analysis.

**Introduction to Databases :** Architecture and structure of Database Management System, data independence, ER Diagrams, Introduction to network, hierarchical and relational model, Domain, Attributes, Tuples and Relations, Entity and referential integrity, keys, Normalization, First, Second and Third normal forms, Boyce/Codd normal form, Structured Query Language: DDL and DML statements.

**Data Structure : ** Basics, Arrays, Operations on arrays with Algorithms (searching, traversing, inserting, deleting), Traversing a linked list, searching linked list, Insertion and deletion into linked list, Application of linked lists, doubly linked lists, Stacks, Queues, Binary Trees, Search algorithm (Linear and Binary), Sorting algorithms (Bubble Sort, Insertion Sort, Quick Sort, Selection Sort, Merge Sort, Heap Sort) and their comparisons.

**Computer Architecture** : Instruction Code, Instruction Cycle, Instruction types, Design of basic computer, Register Organization, Addressing modes, Introduction to RISC, CISC architecture, Control Unit – Hard wired and Micro programmed, Pipeline processing, Memory Hierarchy, associative memory, cache memory, virtual memory, I/O organization.

** Data Communication and Computer Networks : ** LAN, MAN and WAN, OSI Model, Topologies, Basic access protocols: CSMA/CD, Token Passing, Ethernet, Error Detection, Network connectivity Devices, NICs, Hubs, Repeaters, Multiplexers, Modems, Routers and Protocols, Firewall, ATM, Different classes of IP addressing, Protocol Suites.

**Object Oriented Programming Using C++** : Procedure oriented programming Vs. Object oriented programming (OOP), Classes, Objects, reusability, encapsulation, dynamic binding, message passing, Constructor and Destructor, Member Functions, Overloading Member Functions, Inheritance, Protected, private and public data, types of inheritance, single inheritance, hierarchical inheritance, multiple inheritance, Polymorphism and Virtual Functions.

**Operating System (OS)** : System Software: Compiler, Assembler, Loader, Definition, types and importance of Operating Systems, Memory organization, Process Management Functions, Job Scheduler, Process Scheduler, Process synchronization, Memory Management Function, Segmentation, Swapping, Simple Paging System, Virtual Memory, I/O Management Functions, Dedicated Devices.

**Electrical Engineering**

**Introduction :** Comparison of copper and aluminum as electrical conducting material. Development of modern insulating materials. Development of dynamo grade and transformer grade silicon sheet steel materials. Circuit laws and their applications in solving problems. Concept of permeability, reluctance, mmf, coreless. Concept of phase difference, phase representation of alternating quantities.

**Poly Phase System :** Production of rotating magnetic field in electrical machines. Characteristics of D.C. machines. Shunt series and compound types, speed control of D.C. motors. Transformer-single phase, three phase, phasor diagrams, equivalent circuits, testing, regulation, losses, efficiency, parallel operation, maintenance.

**Three Phase Induction Motor :** Slip, torque & their various relations. Torque-slip characteristics, equivalent circuit, starting, testing, speed control, maintenance.

**Single Phase Induction Motor :** Torque/Speed characteristics, methods of producing starting torque, capacitor, shaded pole and reluctance motors.

**AC Series Motor, Universal Motor :** Synchronous machines: Speed/frequency relation, EMF equation, winding coefficients, synchronous impedance concept, phasor diagram, Regulation. Parallel operation, V curves, starting.

**Measuring Instruments :** Indicating, integrating and recording instruments: deflecting, controlling and damping torques; moving coil and moving iron instruments, sources of errors extension range Watt-meters, Dynamometer type, maximum demand indicators, Energymeters-single phase and three phase, Megger, Earth tester, Multi-meter, power factor meter.

**Electronic Instruments :** VTVM, CRO, Electronic multi-meter, analog multi-meter, digital meters. Measurement of inductance and capacitance and capacitance, power measurements in 3 ph. Circuits.

**Transmission System : **Selection of voltage, comparison of A.C. and D.C. systems, comparison of 3 ph. & 1ph. Systems. Electrical features of transmission line: Calculation of resistance, inductance and capacitance in a.c. transmission lines. Problems on efficiency and regulation, corona. Distribution system: Layout of H.T. and L.T. distribution system. Comparison of overhead and underground distribution system. Estimation, Generation. Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy. Different types of power stations. Comparison, Load estimation – concept, types of power stations, comparison, Load estimation, concept of regional and national grid. Switch gear system: – Circuit breakers, Types, ratings, Comparison, Protection: – Fuses, relays, types & characteristics, comparison. Protection schemes of generators, transformers, bus bars, feeders.

**Civil Engineering**

**Structural Engineering :** Simple stresses and strains, Elasticity, Hooke’s Law, Moduli of Elasticity and Rigidity. Stresses and strains of homogeneous materials and composite sections. Types of beams and supports and loads, concept of bending moment and shear force. Bending moment and shear force diagrams for simple cases. Deflection in beams. Moment area theorem, Bending and shear stresses in circular, rectangular, T and L sections, Comparison of strength of the above sections, Design of singly and doubly Reinforced beams, Design of Columns-Types of Columns. Short and long column, load carrying capacity, effective length of column, lateral and helical ties. I.S. Specifications for reinforcement detailing. Design of slabs types of slabs, one-way slab, two-way slab, I.S. specifications for Reinforcement detailing method of design as per I.S. code. Design of foundations-isolated footing rectangular footing, square footings, circular footings. Design of tension members in structural steel, gross area, net area, tension splice, design of tension member. Design of compression members, column splice, load carrying capacities. Design of beams in structural steel.

** Surveying :** Linear measurements with tape, corrections, chain surveying, offsets, perpendicular offset, oblique offset, measurement of offsets, limiting length of offset, Field book, Instructions for booking field notes, Instruments for setting out right angles, Compass surveying, Prismatic compass. Surveyor’s compass, comparison between prismatic and surveyor’s compass, meridians & bearings, calculation of included angles from bearings, calculation of bearing from including angles, local attraction, magnetic declination levelling, types of levels. Principles of levelling, Classification of levelling. Rise & Fall method, Height of Instrument method, various corrections in levelling. Theodolite surveying, measurement of angle by theodolisty.

**Transportation Engineering :** Introduction of Transportation Engineering, Traffic Engineering, Road materials, Geometric design, Design of flexible and rigid pavements, Road maintenance, Railway Engg. Rails, Sleepers, ballast, points and crossing, Track laying and track maintenance, typical sections of tunnel, method of construction of tunnels in soft rock.

**Soil and Construction Engineering :** Foundations-types, construction details, walls, load bearing and non-load bearing walls, brick masonry, bonds in masonry, stone masonry, type of a stone masonry, partition walls, doors. Floors-types of floors, construction procedure, maintenance of buildings, properties of bricks and stones, cement, aggregates, workability of concrete, Batching, mixing, compaction, placing, curring of concrete. Properties of hardened concrete. Introduction to soil mechanics, Soil classification. Index properties of soil, Shear strength concept.

**Fluid Mechanics, Irrigation and Water Supply Engineering :** Specific weight, density, specific gravity, viscosity, vapour pressure, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension, capilarity and compressibility. Pressure, intensity of pressure, pressure head, and pascal’s Law and its applications. Total pressure, resultant pressure and center of pressure on rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal, circular and curved surfaces. Atmospheric, gauge and absolute pressure, simple differential manometers. Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Discharge and continity equation, Bernoulli’s theorem, statement and description, venturimeter, orifices, time of emptying tanks of uniform cross section by a single orifice. Laminar and turbulent flow explained through. Reynolds experiments. Reynolds number and critical velcity and velcity distribution, losses in pipes, hydraulic gradient line, and total energy line flow from one reservoir to another through a long pipe of uniform and composite section. Water hammer, uniform and non-uniform flow, discharge through channels using chezy’s formula and Manning’s formula. Most economical sections, rectangular, trapezoidal and circular. Measurement of discharge by notches and weirs, measurement of velocity by Pitot tube and current meter. Introduction to irrigation Engg. Flow irrigation, head works and river training works, water logging, water supply, sources of water, Water treatment. Types of pipes, lying of pipes. Quality of sewage, laying of sewers, Building drainage and rural sanitation.

**Chemical Engineering**

**Basic Chemical Engineering :** Units & conversions, Dimensional analysis, Gas Law, Material Balance consisting key components, simultaneous Equation by pass and recycle. Energy Balance. The first law type of heat effects, heat capacities, thermochemistry.

**Fluid Flow and Mechanical Operation :** Flow of incompressible Fluids, Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes, Frictional Losses in pipes. Flow Measurement: Pitot tube orfice meter, venturmeter, Rotamater, Weir & Notches, (their construction and derivation with formula).

**Flow Measurement: **Pitot tube orfice meter, venturmeter, Rotamater, Weir & Notches, (their construction and derivation with formula).

**Transportation of Fluids :** Classification of Pumps, construction and operation of reciprocating, rotary, centrifugal and gear Pumps. Different type of valves, fans, blowers and compressors, Description of various size reduction equipments and laws for power requirement. Separations, Screening, filtration thickeners, classifiers, Centrifuges and cyclone separator.

**Heat Transfer & Mass Transfer Heat Transfer :** Conduction, Fourier’s law, Heat Flow through composite walls, Cylinders and spheres, insulations.

**Convection :** Natural & Forced convection, LMTD, Significance of Reynold number, Prandit’s number and Grashof Number.

** Radiation :** Kirchoff’s Law, Emissive power, wein’s displacement law, Stefan Boltzman law, Emissivity, Absorptivity, Black Body and Green Body radiations. Boiling, Condensation and evaporation, Heat Exchanger: Double Pipe Shell & Tube.

**Mass Transfer :** Principles and Description of various unit operations involving mass transfer such as Distilation, Absorption, Extraction, crystallization & Drying.

**Unit Processes & Process Technology :** Principles of some unit Processes such as Nitration. Sulphonation, Halozenation, Oxidation, Reduction, and Products based on them. Basic Processes for the manufacture of products such as sugar, Fertilizer. Dyestuffs and paints.

**Process Instrumentation & Control :** Principle and Application of following Instruments device. Pressure and Vacuum Gauge. Thermometer and Pyrometer, Liquid Level meter: Visual indicators. Float actuated level meter.

**Analyzers :** PH meter, oxygen analyzer colorimetric analyzers. Infra-red& near Infix analyzer.

**Transmission :** Pneumatic and Inductance transmission. Concept and advantage of automatic Process Control.

**Controllers :** Pneumatic, Electronics, hydraulic, FD, TI, ID Controllers.

**Engineering Material: **Types of Different materials, such as metals, alloys and polymer their structure. Composition and application of these materials for various situations in Chemical Industry

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