VSAT 2021 Chemistry Syllabus

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VSAT Chemistry Syllabus 2021

Unit 1 : Stoichiometry

Some basic concepts , Law of Chemical combinations, Gay Lussacs law of Gaseous Volumes, Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogradro’s law, Atomic and molecular masses – mole concept and molarmass concept of equivalent weight. Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds, stoichiometry and Stoichimetric calculations, Methods of expressing concentrations of Solutions, Redox reactions, Oxidation number concept, Types of redox reactions, Balancing of redox reactions -oxidation number of method-half reaction ( ion – electron ) method, Redox reactions in titrimetry.

Unit 2 : States of matter: Gaseous and Liquids

Intermolecular forces, Thermal energy intermolecular forces vs Thermal interactions, The gaseous state, The gas laws, Ideal gas equation, Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Kinetic molecular theory of gases, Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas ( no derivation ) – Deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation Distribution of molecular Speeds – rms, average and most probable Speeds – Kinetic energy of gas molecules, Behaviour of real gases. Deviation from ideal gas behavior-compressibility factor vs pressure diagrams of real gases, Liquefaction of gases, Liquid state – properties of liquids interms of inter molecular interactions – vapour pressure, Viscosity and surface tension ( Qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivation )

Unit 3 : Solid State

General characteristics of Solid state, Amorphous and Crystalline Solids, Classification of Crystalline Solids, probing the structure of Solids, X-ray Crystallography, Crystal Lattices and unit cells, Number of Atoms in a unit cell, closed packed structures, packing efficiency, calculations involving unit cell Dimensions, imperfections in Solids, Electrical properties, Magnetic properties.

Unit 4 : Atomic Structures

Sub-atomic particles, Atomic models – Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom, Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom, Towards Quantum mechanical model of the Atom, Quantum mechanical model of an atom, Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom-orbitals and Quantum numbers – Shapes of atomic orbitals – energies of orbitals – filling of orbitals in atoms, Auf bau principle, pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity – Electronic configurations of atoms – stability of half filled and completely filled arbitals

Unit 5 : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bonding, concept of ionic and covalent bonds Ionic bonding : Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds, calculation of lattice enthalpy Covalent Bonding : Concept of electro negativity, Fajans rule, dipolemoment, dative bond, Bond parameters, The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) theory , Valence bond theory, Hybridisation, involving S, P and D orbitals, Resonance. Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals ( bonding, antibonding ), sigma and pi-bonds molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy, Elementary idea of Hydrogen bond.

Unit 6 : Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics terms, system and surrounding, Extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes First law of Thermodynamic – concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy heat capacity, molar heat capacity, measurements of ∆u and ∆H, calorimetry. Enthalpy change ∆r H of a reaction – Reaction enthalpyenthalpies for different types of reactions, spontaneity is decrease in enthalpy a Criterion for Spontaneity, entropy and spontaneity entropy, Spontaneity and second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs energy change and equilibrium absolute entropy and Third law of thermodynamics.

Unit 7 : Solutions

Types of solutions, Expressing concentration of a solutions, Mass percentage W / W , Volume percentage ( V / V ) Mass by volume percentage ( W / V ), parts per million. Mole fraction, Molarity, Normality, Molality, Solubility of a solid in a liquid, Solubility of a gas in a liquid. Henry’s law applications vapour pressure of liquid – liquid solutions. Raoults laws as a special case of Henry’s law, vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids. Ideal solutions, non ideal solutions, colligative properties and Determination of molarmass: relative lowering of vapour pressure Elevation of Bioling point, Depression of Freezing point, Osmosis and Osmatic pressure, Reverse Osmosis and water purification Abnormal molar masses.

Unit 8 : Chemical equilibrium

Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium

Equilibrium involving physical processes : Solid – liquid equilibrium, liquid – vapour equilibrium, Solid – vapour equilibrium. Equilibrium involving dissociation of solids or gases in liquids, General character – istics of equilibria involving physical processes.

Equilibrium involving chemical processes : Dynamic equilibrium Law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant, Homo generous equilibria, Heterogeneous equilibria, Applications of equilibrium constants, Relationship between equilibrium constant ( K ), reaction quotient ( Q ) and Gibbs energy ( G ), Factors affecting equilibria, Application of Lechatelier’s principle

Unit 9 : Acids & Bases

Ionic equilibrium in solution, Arrhenius concept of acids and bases,The Bronsted-Lowry Acids and bases, Lewis Acids and Bases Ionization of Acids and bases, Ionization constant of water and its Ionic Product, The P H scale,Ionization of Weak bases Relation between Ka and Kb, Di and poly basic acids and Di and poly acidicbases, Factors affecting acid strength,common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases, Hydrolysis of salts and the PH of their solutions, Buffer solutions, Designing buffer solution, Solubility equilibria of sparingly soluble salts, solubility product constant common ion effect on solubility of salts.

Unit 10 : Electrochemistry

Electrochemical cells, galvanic cells, Measurement of electrode potential, Nernst equation, Equilibrium Constant from Nernst equation ,electro-chemical cell and Gibbs energy of the reaction, conductance of electrolytic solutions, Measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions, variation of conductivity and Molar conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch law and its application, Electrolytic cells and electrolysis, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, Products of electrolysis, Batteries, Primary secondary batteries fuel cells.

Unit 11 : Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a chemical reaction, units of rate of a reaction, factors influencing Rate of a reaction, Dependence of Rate on concentration, Rate expression and Rate constant, Order of a reaction , units of rate constant, Molecularity of a reaction, Integrated rate equations, Zero Order reactions, First order reactions, Half-life of a reaction, Pseudo first order reaction, Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction, Effect of Catalyst, Collision theory of Chemical reaction rates

Unit 12 : Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – Adsorption in action, Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption, Mechanism of Adsorption, Types of Adsorption , Characteristics of Physisorption and chemisorptions, Adsorption isotherms, Adsorption from solution phase Applications of Adsorption.

Catalysis : Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Adsorption theory of Heterogeneous catalysis, Important features of solid Catalysts, Shape-selective Catalyis by Zeolites, Enzyme catalysis catalysts in industry Colloids: Classification of Colloids based on physical state, the nature of interaction, type of particles of Dispersed phase and dispersion medium, preparation of colloids, Purification and properties of colloidal solutions, coagulation of lyophilic sols, emulsions, Colloids Arounds us.

Unit 13 : Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Need of classify elements, Genesis of periodic classification,Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table, Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100 Electronic Configuration and types of elements s,p,d and f blocks. Trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy , Electro negativity, Valency, Oxidation states, Metallic and non-metallic Periodic Trends and chemical Reactivity.

Unit 14 : General principles of Metallurgy

Occurrence of metals, concentration of ores, Levigation, Magnetic separation, forth floatation method, leaching Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore, conversion to oxide, reduction of oxide to metal, thermodynamic principles of metallurgy, Ellingham diagram, Applications, Extraction of iron from its oxides, Extraction of copper from cuprous oxide, Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide, Electro chemical principles of metallurgy oxidation – Reduction, Refining distillation, Liquation, poling electrolytic refining, zone refining, vapour phase refining, uses of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.

Unit 15 : Hydrogen and its Compounds

Hydrogen : Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, Hydrides ionic, covalent, Metallic Hydrides.

Water : Structure of H2o, Physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, Hardness of water Hydrogen peroxide preparation, Physical and chemical properties, storage, uses, Hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit 16 :S-Block elements ( Alkali and alkaline earth metals )

Group 1 Elements

Alkali metals : Electronic configurations, atomic and ionic radii ionization enthalpy, hydration enthalpy, physicalproperties, chemical properties, uses. General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals, oxides, halides, salts of oxyacides, Anomalous properties of lithium, some important compounds of sodium, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, sodium hydeogen carbonate, Biological importance of sodium and potassium.

Group 2 elements

Alkaline earth elements; Electronic configuration ionization enthalpy, Hydration enthalpy, physical and chemical properties, uses General characteristics of compounds of the alkaline earth metals oxides, hydroxides, halides salts of oxyacids ( carbonates, sulphates and nitrates ) anomalous behavior of beryllium, its diagonal relationship with aluminum, some important compounds of calcium ( Cao, Ca(OH )2, Caco3, plaster of Paris, cement ), Biological importance of Magnesium and calcium.

Unit 17 : P- Blocks Elements

Group 13 to Group 18 Elements

Group 13

General Introduction – Electronic configuration atomic radii ionization enthalpy, electro negativity physical & chemical properties, important trends and anomalous properties of boron, some important compounds of boron – borax, orthoboric acid, diborane uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds

Group 14

General Introduction – Electronic configuration atomic radii ionization enthalpy, electro negativity, physical 7 chemical properties, important trends and anomalous properties of carbon, Allotropes of carbon, uses of carbon. Some important compounds of carbon and silicon- CO, CO2, SiO2, silicones, silicates and zeolites.

Group 15

Introduction, DiNitrogen, Ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, Nitric acid, phosphorus allotropic forms, phosphine, phosphorous halides and oxoacids of phosphorous.

Group 16

Introduction, Dioxygen, simple oxides, ozone, sulphur allotropic forms, sulphur dioxide oxoacids of sulphur, sulphuric acid.

Group 17

Introduction chlorine preparation and properties and uses, hydrogen chloride oxoacids of halogens, inter halogen compounds

Group 18

Introduction – Occurrence, Electronic canfiguraion ionization enthalpy, Atomic radii, Electron gain enthalpy physical and chemical properties. Compounds of XeF2, XeF4, XeF6, XeO3, XeOF4 prepartions and properties.

Unit 18 : D- and F – Block Elements and Coordination Compounds

Transition Elements

Position in the periodic table, Electronic configuration General properties of the trasition elements physical properties ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii colour, catalytic behavior, magnetic properties, complex formation, Alloy formation, formation of inter stitial compounds, trends in the M2+ / M3+ / M2+ standard electrode potentials, some important compounds of transition elements oxides and oxoanions of metals. Potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate.

Inner Transition Elements

Lanthanoids & Acitinoids Electronic configuration, Atomic and ionic sizes, oxidation states, general characteristics

Coordination Compounds

Werner’s theory of coordination compounds, Definitions of some terms used in coordination compounds, Bonding in metal carbonyls stability of coordination compounds, impotance and Applications of coordination compounds.

Unit 19 : Environmental Chemistry

Definition of terms, Air, water and soil pollutions, Environmental pollution – Atmospheric pollution, Acid rain, particulate pollutants, Stratospheric pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, perticides industrial wastes, strategies to control environmental pollution Green chemistry.

Unit 20 : Purification and characterization of organic compounds

Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications

Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous and halogens

Quantitative analysis ( basic principles only ) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis

Unit 21 : Some basic principles of organic chemistry

Tetravalency of carbon, shapes of simple molecules – hybridization ( s and p ), Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C -, – C- C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, Homologous series, Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism

Nomenclature ( Trivial and IUPAC )

Covalent bond fission – Hemolytic and heterolysis: free radicals, carbonations and carbanions, stability of carbonations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement

Unit 22 : Hydrocarbons

Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections ( of ethane ), Mechanism of halogenations of alkanes Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism, Mechanism of electrophilic addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides ( Markownikoffs and peroxide effect ), Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization. Alkynes – Acidic character, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, Polymerization. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity, Mechanism of electrophilic substitution, halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Crafts alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono – substituted benzene

Unit 23 : Halo alkanes and halo arenes

Classification, nomenclature nature of C-X bond, methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical properties, substitution reactions SN1, SN2 mechanism, stereo chemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions, elimination reactions elimination versus substitution, reactions of halo arenes, nucleo-philic substitution, electro philic substitutions, reaction with metals poly halogen compounds, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, Freons, DDT

Unit 24 : Alcohols and phenols

Classification, nomenclature, structure of functional groups preparation of Alcohols and phenols, physical properties, chemical reactions, cleavage of O-H bond reactions, esterification cleavage of C-O reactions, Reactions of Phenols kolbe’s reaction, reimer-Tiemann reaction, Comercially important alcohols, CH3OH, C2H5OH

Unit 25 : Ethers

Nomenclature, preparations of ethers, William son synthesis, physical properties chemical properties, cleavage of C-O bond in ethers, Electrophilic substitution.

Unit 26 : Carbonyl Compounds

Aldehydes and Ketones, Nomenclature, Structure of carbonyl group preparation of aldehydes and ketones physical properties, chemical reactions, Nucleophilic addition reactions, reduction reactions, oxidation reactions, reactions due to α- Hydrogen, Cannizzaro reaction, electrophilic substitution reaction, uses of aldehydes and ketones.

Unit 27 : Carboxylic Acids

Nomenclature, preparation of carboxylic acids physical properties, chemical reactions, Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond, Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond, substitution Reactions in the Hydrocarbon part uses of carboxylic acids.

Unit 28 : Organic Compounds containing nitrogen.

Amines : Structure of amines, classification, Nomenclature, preparation of amines, physical properties chemical reactions, Basic character of amines, Alkylation, Acylation, carbyl amine reaction, Reaction with HNo2 aryl, sulphony I chloride, Electrophilic substitution, bromination, Nitration, Sulphonation.
Diazonium Salts : Methods of preparation of diazonium salts physical properties chemical reactions, coupling reaction. Importance of diazonium salts on Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds.
Cyanides and isocyanides : Structures of cyanides and isocyanides preparations, physical properties chemical reactions, uses.

Unit 29 : Polymers

General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization- addition and condensation, copolymerization, Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.

Unit 30 : Bio-molecules

General introduction and importance of bio-molecules.

Carbohydrates – Classification, aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides ( glucose and fructose ), constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides ( sucrose, lactose, maltose ) and polysaccharides ( starch, cellulose, glycogen ).

Proteins : Elementary Idea of – amino acids, peptide bond polypeptide, proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structure ( qualitative idea only ), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.

Vitamins – Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA, Primary structure of DNA, Replication of DNA, Transcription and protein synthesis, Heredity ( genetic code )

Hormones – Classification and structural features, General biological functions of animal hormones.

Lipids – Classification, Structure and function in bio-systems

Unit 31 : Chemistry in everyday life

Chemical in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines – their meaning and common examples.

Chemical in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples

Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

 

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