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Jammu Kashmir BPEE Common Entrance Test 2018 Biology Syllabus
UNIT – 1 : DIVERSITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS ( Marks : 03 )
Systematics – need and history; Salient features of two and five kingdom systems and their merits and demerits; types of classifications ( artificial, natural and phylogenetic ); General characters of algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms; Status of some acellular organisms like viruses and viroids;; Lichens — basic characteristics. Botanical gardens and herbarium.
UNIT – 2 : MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF PLANTS ( Marks : 03 )
Morphology of root, stem and leaf and their modifications; types of inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of Liliaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Tissues and tissue system: Types of tissues ( meristematic and permanent ). Anatomy of dicot and monocot root, stem and leaves; secondary growth.
UNIT – 3 : PLANT PHYSIOLOGY ( Marks : 07 )
Transport in plants : Mechanisms of transport — diffusion, facilitated diffusion, passive and active transport, antiport and symport. Plant water relations: Water potential; osmosis; plasmolysis; imbibition; long distance transport of water; apoplast, symplast pathways; ascent of sap; root pressure theory, tanspirational pull theory and cohesion – tension theory.
Transpiration : mechanism of opening and closing of stomata, guttation; phloem transport ( Mass Flow hypothesis ), diffusion of gases. Mineral Nutrition : Essential Minerals; macro and micro nutrients — their role and deficiency symptoms and mineral toxicity. Mechanism of nutrient uptake by plants from soil. Hydroponics. Nitrogen metabolism — nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis: site of photosynthesis; various photosynthetic pigments; mechanism of light reaction; photophosphorylation ( cyclic and non – cyclic ); Dark reaction – fixation of carbon dioxide ( C3 cycle, C4 cycle ); factors affecting photosynthesis; photorespiration. Respiration: Exchange of gases, cellular respiration; glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport System; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; respiratory quotient. Growth and Development: Characteristics and phases of plant growth; growth curve; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; plant growth regulators – discovery, nature and physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins, cyto kinins, ethylene and abscisic acid. Photoperiodism and vernalisation.
UNIT – 4 : REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS ( Marks : 04 )
Modes of reproduction in flowering plants ( Vegetative, asexual, sexual and micropropagation ); development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination — types, agencies and examples; in – breeding and out – breeding devices, pollen – pistil interaction; double fertilization; post – fertilization events; development of endosperm, embryo, seed and fruit; apomixis and polyembryony — types an d importance.
UNIT – 5 : GENETICS ( Marks : 05 )
Heredity and variation ( somatic and germinal ); Mendel‘s laws of inheritance; deviations from Mendelism; incomplete dominance; co – dominance; multiple alleles; pleiotropy; Polygenic Inheritance; Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Evidence for DNA as genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Proteinsynthesis — trancription, translation, genetic code; gene expression and regulation ( lac – operon ).
UNIT – 6 : ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT ( Marks : 05 )
Meaning of ecology, community, niche. Population and ecological adaptations : Characteristics of populations natality, fecundity & mortality, age distribution; population interactions, competition, predation, parasitism and mutualism. Ecosystems : Biotic and abiotic components; energy flow, nutrient cycling ( carbon and phosphorus ), decomposition and primary productivity; pyramids of number, biomass and energy; ecological succession types. Food chain and food web. Biodiversity and its conservation: threats to biodiversity; megabiodiversity countries and biodiversity hotspots; IUCN threat categories; in situ and ex situ methods of biodiversity conservation.
Environmental Issues : Causes and consequences of air and water pollution and their control; solid waste management; agrochemicals and their effect; greenhouse effect and global warming; stratospheric ozone layer depletion — causes and consequences.
UNIT – 7 : BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE ( Marks : 03 )
Plant Breeding : Introduction, steps in plant breeding and application of plant breeding; Biofortification, Tissue culture : Cellular totipotency; technique and application of tissue culture Microbes in human welfare : Role of microbes in food processing; industrial production; sewage treatment; energy production ( biogas ); biopesticides and biofertilizers. Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMOs ); Bt crops, biopiracy and patents.
UNIT – 8 : DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD ( Marks : 02 )
Characteristic features of living organisms Salient features of different animal phyla ( non – chordates upto phylum level, chordates upto class level ) National parks of India with special reference to J&K State :- Dachigam National Park, Hemis High altitude National park and Kishtwar High altitude National park.
UNIT – 9 : HISTOLOGY & MORPHOLOGY ( Marks : 02 )
Animal Tissues : Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous. Elementary knowledge on morphology & anatomy of Frog, Earthworm and Cockroach.
UNIT – 10 : CELL-STRUCTURE & FUNCTION ( Marks : 04 )
Modern cell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell wall, cell membrane : Structure & function ( fluid mosaic model ). Cell organelles ( Plastids, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies / dictyosomes, Riobosomes, Lysosomes, Nucleu s, Vacuoles, Centrioles, cilia & Flagella ) Cell division : Cell cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Biomolecules : Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolism Enzymes : Types, properties functions and factors controlling enzyme activity.
UNIT – 11 : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY ( Marks : 08 )
Alimentary canal, digestion and absorption of food, disorders of digestive system ( jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, indigestion etc. ) Respiratory organs, mechanism of breathing, respiratory volumes and capacities, transport of gases ( oxygen and carbon dioxide ), disorders of respiratory system ( asthma, emphysema, fibrosis etc. ) Circulatory system : Blood & lymph and their functions, blood groups, coagulation of blood, human heart, cardiac cycle, ECG, double circulation, disorders of circulatory system. ( hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina, heart failure ). Excretory products and their elimination. Modes of Excretion; Ammonotelism, Ureotelism and Uricotelism.
Human excretory system, urine formation, functions of tubules, mechanism of concentration of the filtrate, regulation of kidney function, micturition, role of other organs in excretion ( lungs, liver and skin ), haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, disorders of the excretory system ( kidney failure, glomerulonephritis, renal calculi ) Types of movement ( amoeboid, ciliary and muscular ), different types of muscles, structure of contractile proteins ( actin and myosin ), mechanism of muscle contraction, joints, disorders of muscular and skeletal system ( Myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, tetany, arthritis, gout, osteoporosis ) Human nervous system, neuron as a structural and functional unit of nervous system, generation and conduction of nerve impulse, transmission of impulses, reflex action and reflex arc, structure and functioning of the sense organs ( eye and ear ) Endocrine glands, Mechanism of hormone action, hormones of heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.
UNIT – 12 : REPRODUCTION ( Marks : 06 )
Asexual reproduction : – Characteristics and types of asexual reproduction ( binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmules, fragmentation, regeneration ). Human reproduction :- male and female reproductive system, microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary, spermatogenesis and oogenesis, menstrual cycle, fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation, pregnancy and placenta formation, parturition and lactation Reproductive health :- need for reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases and their control and prevention. Birth control :- its need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy ( MPT ), amniocentesis, infertility and associated reproductive technologies ( IVF,ZIFT,GIFT )
UNIT – 13 : GENETICS AND EVOLUTION ( Marks : 03 )
Sex determination in humans, birds and honey bee. Inheritance pattern of Mendelian disorders in humans ( colour blindness, haemophilia, cystic fibrosis, sickle – cell anaemia, phenylketonuria, thalesemia ) Chromosomal disorders in humans :- Down‘s syndrome, Turner‘s syndrome and Klinefelter‘s syndrome Genome and human genome project. DNA fingerprinting. Origin of life, theories and evidences for evolution with special reference to Darwinian theory, and Modern synthetic theory, Hardy – Weinberg principle, Adaptive radiation. Origin and evolution of man.
UNIT – 14 : BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE ( Marks : 03 )
Health and Diseases : Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines, common diseases in human beings ( their causative agents, symptoms, prevention and control ) with reference to thyphoid, hepatitis, malaria, filariasis, bubonic plague, ascariasis, common cold, amoebiasis and ring worm. Detailed account of diseases like cancer and HIV / AIDS. Insects and human welfare :- Silk, honey and lac producing insects, their life – cycle and usefulness of their products. Poultry and Diary Farming. Adolescence and drug and alcohol abuse (effects of drug/ alcohol abuse, prevention and control.
UNIT – 15 : BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS ( Marks : 02 )
Genetic engineering ( recombinant DNA technology ), cloning. Biotechnological production of human insulin, vaccines and growth hormone. Gene therapy. Bio safety / ethical issues regarding recombinant DNA technology.