Jammu Kashmir BPEE Common Entrance Test Botany Syllabus
Unit I : Diversity of Life, and Plant Classification (6)
Variety of living organisms; systematics; need, history and types of classifications (artificial, natural, phylogenic); biosystematics; bionomial nomenclature; two kingdom system, Five Kingdom system, there merits and demerits (Detailed study); study of Bacteria and Virus, Botanical gardens and Herberia; Zoological parks and Museums.
Unit II : Morphology of Plants and Genetics (6)
Morphology Root, Stem and Leaf, their structure and modifications, inflorescence; flower, fruit, seed and their types, Description Poaceae
Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Brassicaceae and Asteraceae, Internal structure of plants – – – tissues ( Meristematic and permanent; tissue system, anatomy of root, stem and leaf of Monocot and Dicot; secondary growth.
Continuity of Life – – – Heredity, variation ; Mendel’s laws of inheritance; Chromosomal basis of inheritance; other patterns of inheritance – – – incomplete dominance, multiple allelism, quantative inheritance and Pleitrophy.
Unit III : Reproduction, Development and growth of plants (8)
Modes of reproduction in flowering plants – – – vegetative propagation (natural and artificial), significance of vegetative reproduction, micropropagation; sexual reproduction – development of male and female gamatophytes; pollination (types and factors); double fertilization, incompatibility, embryo development , parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy, Characteristics of Plant growth; growth regulators (phytoharmones) – – – – Auxins – – gibberelins, Cytokinins ethylene, ABA; seed germination – – – mechanism and factors affecting germination, role of growth regulators in seed dormancy ; senescence; abscission, stress factors (salt and water) and growth, plant movement – – – geotropism, phototropism, turgor growth movements (tropic, nastic and nutation), process of flowering – – – photoperiodosm, vernalisation.
Unit IV : Physiology of Plants (9)
Cell as a physiological unit; composition of protoplasm; water relations – – – absorption and movement (diffusion, osmosis, plasmolysis, permeability,water potential, imbibition); theories of water translocation – root pressure, transpiration pull, transpiration – – – significance, factors affecting rate of transcription, mechanism of stomatal opening and closing (Potassium ion theory); factor affecting stomatal movement.
Mineral nutrition – – – functions of minerals, essential major elements and trace elements; deficiency symptoms of elements, theories of translocation; translocation of solutes, nitrogen and nitrogen metabolism with emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis – – – significance, site of photosynthesis (functional aspect of chlorophyll structure); photochemical and photosynthetic phases electron transport system; photophosphorylation (cyclic and non cyclic); C3 and C4 pathway; photo respiration; factors effecting photosynthesis; mode of nutrition. (autotrophic heterotrophic – saprophytic, parasitic and insectivorous plants), chemosynthesis.
Mechanism of respiration – – glycolysis, Krebs cycle, pentose pathway, anaerobic respiration respiratory quotient, compensation point, fermentation.
Unit V : Ecology environment and Biology in Human Welfare (8)
Organisms and their environment; factor – air, water, soil, biota,temperature and light; range of tolerance; ecological adaptation.Levels of organization, population, species, community, eco-system and biosphere, Ecological interactions – – – symbiosis, mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism predation and competition Ecosystem – – structure and functions; productivity; energy flow; ecological efficiencies; decomposition and nutrient cycling; major biomes – – – forests, grasslands and deserts.
Ecological Succession – – – – types and mechanism.
Natural resources – – – types use and misuse of natural resources.
Environmental pollution – – – – kinds, sources and abatement of air, water, soil and noise pollution.
Global environmental changes – – – kinds, sources and abatement of air, water, soil and noise pollution.
Global environmental changes; Greenhouse Gases, global warming, sea level rise and ozone layer depletion.
Food production, breeding, improved varieties, biofertilizers, plant tissue culture and its applications; Brief account of some common crop and animal diseases; biopesticides; genetically modified food; bio-war, biopiracy; biopatent, biotechnology and sustainable agriculture.