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WBJEE 2018 Biological Science Syllabus
- Movements of water, nutrients and gases : Absorption of gases, water and nutrients; cell-to-cell transport, diffusion, active transport; plant-water relation- imbibitions, water potential, osmosis and plasmolysis; long distance transport- apoplasitc, symplastic, root pressure, transpiration pull, uptake of minerals; transpiration and gullation; opening and closing of stomata; transport through xylem and phloem
- Essential minerals : Macro and micro nutrients and their functions; elementary idea of hydroponics; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen cycle; biological nitrogen fixation
- Respiration : Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation, TCA cycle and ETS ( aerobic )- definition, process and significance; energy relation – number of ATP molecules generated in respiration; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotients of nutrients
- Photosynthesis : Definition; site of photosynthesis; photosynthetic pigments ( structure not required ); photochemical and biosynthetic phases; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors controlling photosynthesis
- Growth and development : Idea of growth, differentiation and development; various growth factors ( light, temperature, water, nutrients, hormones only ); growth rate; growth regulation – auxin, gibberellins, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed germination, seed dormancy, vermilisation; photoperiodism- definition, types of plants on the basis of the length of photoperiod
- Reproduction : Mode of reproduction- sexual and asexual; asexual reproduction – definition, characteristics, modes ( binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation, regeneration, vegetative propagation, cutting, grafting, layering and gootee ); sexual reproduction – flower structure; pollination ( autogamy and geitonogamy ); cross pollination ( allogamy and xenogamy ); agents of pollination – brief description with examples; significance; development of male gametophyte and female gametophyte; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction, double fertilization; post – fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo ( in brief ); formation of fruit and development of seed ( elementary ); special modes – apomixes, parthenogenesis, parthenocarpy and polyembryony ( brief account ); significance of fruit and seed formation.
- Digestion and Absorption : Structure of human alimentary canal including dental arrangement and digestive glands ( in brief ); peristalsis; digestion, role of digestive enzymes and the Cr – I hormones in digestion; absorption, assimilation of carbohydrates, protein and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorder – protein – energy malnutrition ( PEM ), indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea ( brief idea )
- Breathing and Respiration : Respiratory organs in animals ( in brief ); respiratory system in human ( outline ); mechanism of breathing and its regulation in human body; exchange of gases, transport of gases; regulation of respiration; respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders ( e.g. Silicosis, asbestosis ); definition of hypoxia, anoxia, apnoea, dyspnoea
- Body fluids and Circulation : Composition of blood ( in tabular form); blood grouping; coagulation of blood; lymph and its function; outline idea of human circulatory system; structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, stroke volume, minute volume, determination of cardiac output – Fick’s principle; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity ( neutral and hormonal ) including factors regulating blood pressure; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure ( brief idea only )
- Excretory Products and Their Elimination : Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism ( definition and examples ); human excretory system- structure and function ( histology of nephron ); urine formation n and osmoregulation; regulation of kidney functions, rennin, angiotensin, antidiuretic factor ( ADH ) and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion – liver, skin, lung and salivary glands; disorders- uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney ( brief idea only )
- Locomotion and Movement : Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar and muscular; skeletal muscle – contractile proteins and its function; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, and gout ( brief idea only )
- Neural Control and Coordination : Brief idea of neurons and nerves, neural control and coordination; nervous system of human – central, peripheral and visceral; brain and its major parts – cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system; midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum and spinal cord ( outline idea ); distribution and function of peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action and reflex arc; sense organs – sensory perception; outline structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical Coordination and Regulation : Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads – location and function only; elementary idea of hormone action, role of hormones as messengers and regulators; hypo – and hyperactivity of endocrine glands and related diseases – dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease ( brief idea of cause and symptoms only )
- Reproduction : Male and female reproductive system ( outline idea with diagram ); microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis (brief account); menstrual cycle; fertilization and development of embryo up to blastocyst formation; implantation, pregnancy and placenta formation; elementary idea of parturition and lactation
Taxonomy, Systematics and Biodiversity : Definition; binomial nomenclature; Law of priority; need for classification; genetic diversity; species diversity, ecosystem diversity, biodiversity; five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of plants and animals.
Ecology and Environment : Concept of ecology, ecosystem, environment, habitat and niche; biome concept and distribution; major abiotic factors; response to abiotic factors and adaptation; population interaction- mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes- growth, birth rate and death rate; trophic relationship, pyramids of number, biomass and energy; ecological succession.
Biodiversity and Conservation : Pattern of biodiversity; importance and loss of biodiversity; need of biodiversity conservation; hotspot; endangered species; extinction; Red Data Book and Green Data Book; biodiversity conservation – biosphere reserve, national parks and sanctuaries ( general idea )
Environmental Issues : Sound, air, water pollution and their control; agrochemical and their effects; green house effect and global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; idea of success stories addressing environmental issues – 1 ) Chipko Movement, 2) Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal Movement (DGSM), Silent Valley or Amrita Devi Bishnoi Movement ( Jaipur ); concept and biomagnifications and bioaccumulation; cause of dyslexia, Minamata and itai-itai diseases; idea of BOD, COD, acid rain, ozone hole.
Microbes and Human Welfare : Morphological characteristics of bacteriophage ( T2 ), plant virus ( TMV ), animal virus ( influenza ) and bacteria ( E. coli ), gram negative and gram positive bacteria ( characteristics and examples )
Health and Diseases : Concept of immune system, antibody, antigen and its reactions; types of immunity, vaccine and vaccination ( brief idea ); pathogens and parasites causing human diseases ( only causative agents, symptoms of diseases, modes of transmission and preventive measures )- malaria, kala azar, amoebiasis, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, ring worm, HIV, AIDS, cancer.
Biotechnology and its Applications : Principle and process of genetic engineering ( recombinant DNA technology ); cloning of microbial genes ( brief idea only ); application of biotechnology in health and agriculture – in household food processing; industrial production, energy generation, sewage treatment; Rhizobium and other nitrogen fixing bacteria, biofertilizers and biopesticides, industrial production of curd; tanning and brewery, synthesis of antibiotics, vitamins, human insulin and vaccine production; gene therapy, transgenesis, transgenic animals and plants with examples ( including BT cotton ).
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