Arts in States in IndiaGeneral Knowledge »
Arts in States
Tamil Nadu : The Kalakshetra established by Mrs. Rukmini Devi Arundale in Chennai has been for long the upholder of pure classicalism in Bharatha Natyam. As a training centre it remains unique. It has been a second home for stalwarts who give Carnatic Music. Grants from the Sangeet Natak Academy have stimulated its programs. Even older than Kalakshetra the other conservative organisation of Tamil Nadu is the Chennai Music Academy. Mrs. Subbulakshmi, Dr.M. Balamurali Krishna, Mandolin Srinivas and others have been exponents of Carnatic Music from Tamil Nadu.
Kerala : Kathakali style of dance, originated from Kerala has its origin in the courts of the Kings of Kerala. It is more than 300 years old. It is considered to be a highly synthetic art form, combining in itself the rudiments of its earlier forms like Krishnanattam and Ramanattam plus a highly scientific dance drama form.
It is not folk, but highly classical though not very old. Poet Vallathol can be said to. be the fountain head of all inspirations in regard to today’s Kathakali. He authored many scripts. Kerala Kalamandalam at Cheruthuruthy on the bank of Bharathapuzha is the premier institution in this regard.
Karnataka : Though no particular style of dance originated from Karnataka, some of the plays written by authors like B.V. Karanth & Girish Karnad have been noteworthy. K.S. Karanth has dedicated him self to the rehabilitation of the famous ‘Yakshagana’ of Karnataka. But he tries to present Yakshagana without dialogue. But recent experience has shown that the Yakshagana in its original Udipi style commands greater respect.
Andhra Pradesh : In Andhra Pradesh the appearance of Kuchipudi on the all – India stage has been a notable event. Kuchipudi, a style of dance – drama, goes back to the 15th century. But for a long time it was regarded only as a simplified version of Bharatha Natyam.
Actually its grammar is in one sense more complex having to maintain balance between prose, dialogue, classical songs and intricate tala system. Vedantam Satyanarayana, the Academy award winner, an exponent of Kuchipudi, can hold an audience in spell, anywhere in the world.
Orissa : Odissi style of dance as classical form has brought a much needed and richly deserved sense of self – confidence to Orissa. Odissi is a carefully structured blend of the classical and the devotional temple dance. Kelucharan Mohapatra is the eminent Guru of Odissi.
Maharashtra : Though the Maharashtrians in Mumbai are keen in keeping pace with the Metropolitan cultures of modern cities of the world, they have significantly contributed to the revival of traditional Marathi culture. It is no exaggeration to say that the culture of Maharashtra has always sought heights of splendour through the path of austerity.
During the last twenty – five years, Marathi genius has found expression in two different styles of theatre, one is respresented by the modern critical and the other outrageously frank drama of Vijay Tendulkar, as well as the bold and symbolical theatre productions of Satyadeva Dube. In classical music, Maharashtra has continued to give the lead. Even in popular film music none has heldlfie field for so long and with such distinction as Lata Mangeshkar.
Gujarat : The foundations of the plastic and the performing art of Gujarat and Saurashtra are primarily folk. By 1947 the popular plays of Jayasukhlal Sundri had already given place to the modernised versions of Bhavani presented by Deena Gandhi and others. The Baroda College of arts has played a role in this revival. Mrinalini Sarabhai founded Darpana. She is a highly talented dancer.
Madhya Pradesh : Tribal dances, folk plays and folk songs are the characteristics of Madhya Pradesh. The romantic folk drama of Malwa, has received country – wide attention. Kumar Gandharva, Habib Tanwir and Puna Ram are notable persons in the field of dance and music.
Rajasthan : The art received royal patronage from princes in the pre – independence era itself. This patronage is being continually offered by Rajasthan’s Sangeet Natak Academy. The puppet shows given by the Bharatiya Lok Kala Mandal have won acclaim in Europe and Asia in several international festivals by the hard efforts of Samar, a pupil of Uday Shankar. Through the Kuchaman, Chirawa and other styles of Kyall, the folk drama of Rajasthan has come to be well – known.
Jammu and Kashmir : Jammu and Kashmir was once the home of the cream of ancient India’s arts and letters. Now the Brian Jashn, a traditional folk play of the Kashmir Valley too is in danger of extinction. The sofiana music of Kashmir has now been brought to the notice of tourists.
Himachal Pradesh : Though a musical link can be established between Jammu and Himachal Pradesh, there is nothing comparable to Himachal Pradesh’s satirical folk play. Kariala. Both Jammu and Himachal Pradesh could emerge as excellent centres of painting. Their 18th and 19th century Kangra Pahari Schools of painting are at present the subject of eulogistic scholarly studies.
Punjab and Haryana : These two states have the true Indian character of accommodating the other forms of art and music. Punjab is perhaps the state which has contributed the largest number of stage actors and actresses to the Hindi theatre.
Even Prithiviraj Kapoor who recently died was a pupil of the late Mrs. Norach Richards. Haryana’s Academy has been very active in refining the folk play Haryanvi Swang without losing its character.
Uttar Pradesh : Uttar Pradesh’s progress after independence has been more marked in the Kathak dance. Though Uttar Pradesh’s Academy was started very late, one of its major tasks was to ensure that the famous Ramila of Ramnagar ( Kashi ) which has a unique style, is not allowed to die down.
Bihar : Bihar was the first state to have its Academy soon after independence. The Bihar Nritya Kala Mandir, Patna is a training institute imparting training in the Kathakali style and also Bharatha Natyam.
Assam and Manipur : The Sangeet Natak Academy of Assam started enthusiastically by Rani Sabita Devi has concerned itself with, promoting modern Assamese theatre as also the Satirya dance of the Ankiya Naat and the Bihu festival. For the preservation of the traditional Manipuri style of dancing, the Sangeet Natak Academy established Jawaharlal Nehru Manipuri Dance Academy. It maintains a high standard.
West Bengal : Bengali Cinema Directors like Satyajit Ray have produced films which have won international awards. The significance of the Bengal theatre lies in the strong formative influence, it has on the Hindi theatre. Kolkata seems to provide the ideal situation in which commercial Hindi theatre has risen. The department of culture has been actively pursuing a policy of cultural co – operation with many countries in the world. At present, India has cultural agreements with 74 countries and 2-3 year cultural exchange programs with forty eight countries.
India in World Heritage : World Heritage committee constituted by the UNESCO under the provision of the International convention for production of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, has recommended the inscription of 24 cultural monuments and 6 natural sites from India in World Heritage list.
These are :
- Cultural Monuments : Ajanta caves, Ellora caves, Agra Fort, Taj Mahal, Sun Temple at Konark, Churches and Convents of Goa, Group of Monuments at Khajuraho, Mahabalipuram, Hampi, Fatehpur Sikri and Pattadkal – Elephanta caves and Brahadeeswara temple at Tanjore, Qutub Minar, New Delhi, Humayun’s Tomb, Airavatesvara Temple, Champaner – Pavagadh. Victoria Terminus, Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Mahabodhi Temple, Bhimbetaka. UNESCO announced the Red Fort as one of the Heritage site in India in 2007 and
Kalka – Shimla Railway considered as World Heritage Status by UNESCO in 2008.
- Natural sites : Kaziranga National Park, Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Keoladeo National Park, Sunderbans National Park, Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Rowers.
World Heritage Day and Week : The World Heritage Day on April 18, 1992 and World Heritage Week from November 19 to 25, 1992 were celebrated.
Category I UNESCO Institute : The Government on March 15, 2011 cleared the proposal for setting up Mahatma Gandhi institute of education for peace and sustainability development, a UNESCO Category-I Institute in New Delhi.
Application Form Submission 16 Dec 2020 to 16 Jan 2021.