Tamil Poet Bharathidasan Biography
Bharathidasan ( April 29, 1891 – April 21, 1964; also spelt Bharatidasan ) was a twentieth century Tamil Poet and rationalist whose literary works handled mostly socio – political issues.
His writings served as a catalyst for the growth of the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu. In addition to poetry, his views found expression in other forms such as Plays, Film Scripts, Short Stories and Essays. Bharatidasan was mentored by Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathi ( after whom he called himself “Bharathidasan” ).
But Bharathidasan, unlike Bharathi rarely used words derived from Sanskrit in his works; also Bharathidasan’s works were more political.
Bharatidasan Life History
Bharathidasan was born to Kanagasabai Mudaliar and Lakshmi Ammal in a well – to – do merchant family of Pondicherry. His original name was Subburathinam. Bharatidasan underwent formal education in Tamil literature, Tamil grammar and Saiva Sidhantha Vedanta under reputed scholars.
Bharatidasan also studied at the College Calve in Pondicherry. In 1909, Bharatidasan was introduced to Subramanya Bharathi, and his interactions with the Mahakavi had a major impact on him. Bharatidasan initially worked as a Tamil Teacher in the French Territory of Karaikal.
Bharatidasan actively participated in the Indian Independence Movement and through his writings, Bharatidasan openly opposed the British and the French Government. Bharatidasan was sentenced and imprisoned by the French Government for voicing views against the French Government that was ruling Pondicherry then.
Bharatidasan was a strong supporter of Periyar and an important member of the Suya – Mariyadhai Iyyakam ( meaning Self – Respect Movement ) and Dravida Movement, founded by Periyar. Biggest leader Pavalareru Perunchitthiranaar’s Friend.
During the Atheist’s conference in Chennai, Bharatidasan signed a document having the words “I am an undying atheist”.
Throughout his writing career he was encouraged by political leaders such as Annadurai and M.G. Ramachandran. In 1954 Bharatidasan was elected to the Pondicherry Legislative Assembly. Bharatidasan remained a prolific writer until Bharatidasan died in 1964 in a hospital in Chennai.
Bharatidasan Literary Works
Bharathidasan penned his works under different pseudonyms such as Puduvai Kalaimakal, Desopakari, Desabhaktan, Anantapotini, Swadesamitiran, Tamilarasu, Tupleks, Kirukkan, Kindalkaran and the name by which Bharatidasan known today – Bharathidasan.
As Bharatidasan was a staunch follower of Anti – Brahmanism, many of his works were Anti – Brahmin in nature. Often he talked of “Tamil Race” and “Aryan Race” as polar opposites.
Bharatidasan’s Works include :
- Srimayilam Suppiramaniar Thuthiyamuthu
- Sanjivi Parvathin Saaral
- Edhirpaaraadha Mutham
- Kaadhal Ninaivugal
- Nalla Theerppu
- Alagin Sirippu
- Kudumba Vilakku
- Pandiyan Parisu
- Irunda Veedu
- Tamil Illakiyam
- Amaidhi – Oomai
- Kavingyar Pesugiraar
- Kadhala Kadamaiya
- Hindi Ethurppu Paadalgal
- Kannagi Puratchi Kaapiyam
- Manimekalai Venpa
- Tenaruvi Isai Paadalgal
Bharatidasan Awards and Recognitions
- Bharathidasan was conferred with the title of “Puratchi Kavingyar” ( meaning the “Revolutionary Poet” ) by Periyar. Bharatidasan won the Golden Parrot Prize in 1946 for his play Amaithi – Oomai ( Peace and Dumbness ). Bharatidasan was given the Sahitya Academy award posthumously in 1970 for his play Pisiranthaiyar.
- In 9 October 2001, a commemorative stamp of Bharathidasan was released by the Postal Department in Chennai.
The state government of Tamil Nadu gives the Bharathidasan Award annually to a Tamil Poet.