Anti-Poverty Measures in India
Anti-Poverty and Employment Generation Programs Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana ( SGSY )
- Started on April 1, 1999. It has replaced the following programs.
- Integrated Rural Development Program ( IRDP ) : Started in 1978 – 1979.
- Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas ( DWCRA ) : Started in 1978 – 1979.
- Ganga Kalyan Yojana ( GKY ) : Started in 1997.
- Million Wells Scheme ( MWS ) : Started in 1989.
- Supply of Improved Tool – kits to Rural Artisans ( SITRA ) : Started in 1992.
- The Yojana takes into account all the strengths and weaknesses of the earlier self – employment programs.
- It AIMS at establishing a large number of micro – enterprises in the rural areas.
- Every assisted family will be brought above the poverty line. It is proposed to cover 30% of the rural poor in each block.
- To target at least 50% Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, 40% Women and 3% disabled.
- Shared 75 : 25 by Centre and States.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana ( PMGY )
- It was introduced in 2000 – 2001 with the objective of focusing on village level development in five critical areas, i.e., Primary Health, Primary Education, Housing, Rural Roads and Drinking Water and Nutrition with the overall objective of improving the quality of life of people in rural areas. Rural electrification was added as an additional component from 2001 – 2002.
- It has the following components.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana ( PMGSY )
- It was launched on December 25, 2000 with the objective of providing road connectivity through good all weather roads to all rural habitations with a population of more than 1000 persons by the Year 2003 and those with a population of more than 500 persons by the Year 2007.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana ( Gramin Awas )
- Launched on April 1, 2000. Based on the pattern of Indira Awas Yojana, the scheme is being implemented in the rural areas throughout the country with the objective of sustainable habitat development.
- Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana ( Rural Drinking Water Project ).
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme ( NREGS )
- It was launched on February 2, 2006. The on – going programs of Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana ( SGRY ) and National Food for Work Program ( NFFWP ) were subsumed within the NREGS in the 200 districts identified in the initial stage. All the districts in the country are covered under the scheme now.
The features of the scheme are :
- State Government to provide at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial Year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
- Until such time as a wage rate is fixed by the Central Government, the minimum wage for agricultural laborers shall be applicable for the scheme.
- An applicant not provided employment within fifteen days, to be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance as specified by the State Government subject to its economic capacity, provided such rate is not less than quarter of the wage rate for the first thirty days during the financial Year and not less than a half of the wage rate for the remaining period of the financial Year.
Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana ( SGRY )
- It was started on September 25, 2001, with the mergence of the Employment Assurance Scheme ( EAS ) and the Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana ( JGSY ). Earlier Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, which started in 1989, was merged with Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana.
- This scheme has been subsumed in National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
Bharat Nirman Yojana
- Accepting the policy ‘a step towards village’, Union Government launched a new scheme, named ‘Bharat Nirman Yojana’ on December 16, 2005. This scheme aims at developing rural infrastructure. The duration of implementing this scheme has been determined for four Years with the expected expenditure of [rupee] 1,74,000 crore. The major six sectors and their targets for next four Years are :
- Irrigation : To ensure irrigation for additional one crore hectare of land by 2009.
- Roads : To link all villages of 1,000 populations with roads and also to link all ST and hilly villages up to 500 populations with roads.
- Housing : Construction of 60 lakh additional houses for the poor.
- Water Supply : To ensure drinking water to all remaining 74,000 villages.
- Electrification : To supply electricity to all remaining 1,25,000 villages and to provide electricity connection to 2.3 crore houses.
- Rural Communication : To provide telephone facility to all remaining 66,822 villages.
Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana ( SJSRY )
- The SJSRY came into operation in December 1997, through a restructuring and streamlining of the earlier urban poverty alleviation programs, the Nehru Rozgar Yojana ( NRY ), the Urban Basic Services for the Poor ( UBSP ) and the Prime Ministers Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Program ( PMIUPEP ).
- It seeks to provide employment to the urban employed or underemployed living below poverty line and educate up to IX standard through encouraging the setting up of self – employment ventures or provision of wage employment.
- It is funded by the Centre and States on 75 : 25 bases.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana
- Launched on December 25, 2000, the scheme aims at providing food security to poor families.
- The Scheme contemplates identification of 10 million poorest of the poor families and providing them with 35 kg of food grains per family per month at a low price of 2 per kg of wheat and [rupee] 3 per kg for rice.
- Inaugurated on March 19, 1999.
- Initially the scheme provided 10 kg food grains to senior citizens who were eligible f0r old age pension but could not get it due to one reason or the other. Later on, it was extended to cover those people also who get old age pensions.
- Food grains are provided to the beneficiaries at subsidized rates of [rupee] 2 per kg of wheat and [rupee] 3 per kg of rice.
Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana ( PMRY )
- The scheme was launched on October 2, 1993 and initially was in operation in Urban areas From April 1, 1994, the scheme is being implemented throughout the country.
- Under this scheme every selected educated unemployed youth in the age group of 18 – 35 Years and having family income below 40,000 is provided a loan of up to [rupee] 1 lakh for opening his own enterprise and [rupee] 2 lakhs for other activities.
- Projects involving two or more than two partners may be given a loan up to [rupee] 10 lakhs. Under this scheme, 15% of the total project cost ( maximum [rupee] 15,000 ) is given to the beneficiary as subsidy. 5% of equity is to be invested by the beneficiary himself and the remaining cost of the project is financed by the concerned bank.
- The entrepreneurs of these tiny units are provided adequate training and also given assistance of raw material and marketing, if required.
- Micro – enterprises from commercial sector should not comprise more than 30 percent. This scheme is being administered by Union Industry Ministry. SC/ST and other backward classes have been given reservation of 22.5% and 27% respectively.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
The Scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ( SSA ) was launched in 2001.
The goals of SSA are as follows :
- All 6 – 14 age children in School / Education Guarantee Scheme Centre / bridge course by 2003.
- All 6 – 14 age children complete five Year primary education by 2007.
- All 6 – 14 age children complete eight Years of schooling by 2010.
- Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life.
- Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010.
- Universal retention by 2010.
The assistance under the program of SSA was on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the Tenth Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central Government and State Government.
SSA addresses the needs of 194 million children in the age group of 6 – 14 Years. Under the scheme, 9.72 lakh existing primary and upper primary schools and 36.95 lakh existing teachers have been covered.