Indian Cement Industry
Cement Industry in India : : Industries in India
- Production of cement was started in 1904 at Madras but the foundation of stable Indian cement industry was laid in 1914 when the Indian Cement Company Limited started production at Porbander in Gujarat.
- During planning period, the cement industry has recorded continuous growth. India became not only self – reliant at the end of Seventh Plan but also started export of cement. At present, cement is the most advanced industries in the country.
- India is the fourth largest cement producing country is the world, the first three being China, Japan and USA.
- After the complete decontrol of price and distribution on 1st March, 1989 and introduction of other policy reforms, the cement industry has made rapid strides both in Capacity / Production and in production and process technology.
- At present, there were 130 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 163.45 million tonnes per annum.
- Besides, there are more than 332 mini cement plants with an estimated capacity of 11.10 million tonnes per annum.
Jute Industry of India
- Jute industry is an important industry for a country like India, because not only does it earn foreign exchange but also provides substantial employment opportunities in agriculture and industrial sectors.
- Its first modernized industrial unit was established at Reshra in West Bengal in 1855. There are at present 73 jute mills in India, out of which West Bengal has 59 mills, Bihar 3 mills, U.P 3 mills, Andhra Pradesh 4 mills and Assam, Tripura, Orissa and M.P one each.
- The jute industry in the country is traditionally export oriented. India ranks Number 1 in raw jute and jute goods production and Number 2 in export of jute goods in the world.
Sugar Industry in India
- Sugar industry is the second largest industry after cotton textile industry among agriculture based industries of the country.
- As on 30th September, 2006 there were 582 installed sugar factories in the country as against 138 during 1950 – 1951.
- At present, 203 sugar factories in private sector, 62 in public sector and remaining 317 factories in co – operative sector are working in the country.
- This industry provides not only employment to a substantial number of persons but also holds the potentialities of developing other industries related to its by – products.
India is the largest consumer of sugar and the second largest producer of sugar with a share of over 15 percent of world sugar production.
- Sugar industry is the second largest agro – based industry in India after textiles. The importance of sugar industry in India can be judged from the fact that about 45 million sugarcane growers and a large number of rural laborers depend on sugarcane and sugar industry for their livelihood.
- Sugar cultivation accounts for 3 percent of total cultivated area and contributes 7.5 percent of the gross value of agricultural production.
- India is the largest consumer of sugar and the second largest producer of sugar with a share of over 15 percent of world sugar production.
- Maharashtra contributes over one – third of the total sugar output, followed closely by U.P, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
Indian Fertilizer Industry
- India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world.
- There are, at present, 57 fertilizer units manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous and complex fertilizers, including 29 units producing urea and 9 units producing ammonium sulphate as a by – product.
Paper Industry India
- The first mechanized paper mill was set – up in 1812 at Serampur in West Bengal.
- The paper industry in India is ranked among the top 15 global paper industries. The per capita paper consumption in India is still at 5.5 kg, which is far below the global average ( nearly 50 kg ).
- The Government had completely de – licensed the paper industry from 17th July, 1997.
- At present, there are more than 600 pulp and paper mills producing nearly 5.8 million tonnes of paper and paper board and about 0.77 million tonnes of newsprint. A significant aspect of the paper industry is strong presence of smaller paper mills which account for nearly 50% of the total installed capacity and contribute about 50% to the production of paper and paper board in the country.
Coal Industry in India
- The credit for introducing coal in India goes to the two English men Sambhar and Hatley. They took permission from East India Companies Chief Warren Hastings in 1774 for excavating coal from Raniganj and Veerbhum areas.
- Their efforts started survey of coal regions. The extraction of coal was started in 1814 in Raniganj area. A number of new coal mines were located in Raniganj area in 1830.
- Coal occupies the most important place among available power resources in India. Indian coal industry is a basic industry on which many other industries depend.
- Coal accounts for about 67% of the country’s commercial requirements. It is also an essential input in steel and carbo – chemical industries. The share of non – coking coal in total coal production comes to be about 85.3%.
- Coal is India’s largest mineral resource and presently India is the fifth largest producer of coal in the world.
- As on 1st January, 2006 the coal resources of India ( down to a depth of 1,200 m ) have been estimated by the Geographical Survey of India at 2,53,301 million tonnes.
- India is the second largest ( first being China ) country in the world in producing natural silk. At present, India produces about 18% silk of the world.
- Silk was first introduced in China but India too produced silk in ancient period. In earlier days, India exported silk cloth and other silk items in a large quantity to many countries. But at present silk industry in India is not as healthy as it was in the past.
- India enjoys the distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk, viz., Mulberry, Tropical Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga ( of which the golden yellow muga silk being unique to India ). India’s total silk production is about 16,500 tonnes ( against a demand of around 26000 MT ).
Gems and Jewellery Industry of India
- The Gems and Jewellery Sector contributed about 15 percent in Indias total merchandise exports during 2005 – 2006.
- India is the largest cutting and polishing centre of diamonds in the world, both in terms of quantity and value.
- In terms of carat, India’s share in this sector is about 80 percent of the world market. Gold jewellery and coloured gem segments accounts for about 15 per cent and 5 percent respectively of India’s gem and jewellery export in value terms.
Destination – wise, the major market for Indian gems and jewellery in terms of importance are USA, UAE, Hong Kong, Belgium, Israel, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Singapore and Korea. USA itself accounts for 29 per cent of the total exports from India in this sector.
India Chemical Industry
- Chemical industry is one of the oldest industries in India. It not only plays a crucial role in meeting the daily needs of the common man, but also contributes significantly towards industrial and economic growth of the nation.
- It is on important constituent of the Indian economy. Its turnover is estimated at around US$ 30 billion approx, which is equivalent to about 3 percent of India’s GDP In terms of volume, it is 12th largest in the world, and 3rd largest in Asia.
- Within India, it contributes 20 percent of the Excise revenue to the Government. A substantial proportion of exports from this sector go to the USA, Europe and other developed nations.
- The industry has a weightage of about 14 percent in the Index of Industrial Production and 17.6 per cent within the manufacturing sector.