Indian Dance Drama and Music

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{tab=Music}
Indian Music, Dance & Drama

Gandharva Veda is science of Indian Music. Sama – Veda details the methods of recital of music. Bharatha Muni’s Natya Shastra is a grammar book on Dance. Matanga Muni’s “Brihaddesi” of 6th century AD, describes raga and introduces sarigama notation. He clarifies Bharatha Muni’s Natya Shastra.

Hindustani Music :

It is the erstwhile North Indian style of Indian classical music. Types of components and meanings are,

  • Dhrupad : effort from vocal chords & lungs;
  • Dhamar Khayal : play of Krishna. It is holy delicate, romantic and based on imagination;
  • Thumri : romantic religious literature;
  • Tappa Bai : quick turn of phase;
  • Bhajan : religious devotional songs;
  • Tarana : syllables strung together to set a rhythm;
  • Sabadas : Sikh religious songs;
  • Qawwali : Indo – Muslim repertoire of songs in groups;
  • Ghazal : independent couplets on love and devotion.

Carnatic Music :

It is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

Types of components and meanings are :

  • Ragam – Tanam – Pallavi : Eleborate rhythmic and melodic variation in unmeasured sense;
  • Keerthi – Keerthanai : It is most popular and refers to devotional music laced with poetic beauty;
  • Varnam : Performed at the beginning of a concert. It is a completely composed piece, designed to show the characteristic phrases;
  • Padam : Slower tempoed love songs referred to the human yearning for the adored god head;
  • Javalis : Faster tempoed love songs with direct description of human love;
  • Tillana : Meaningful phrases are interspersed with a variety of meaningless syllables.

General Studies Question Bank CD
Six Ragas

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Schools of Music :

  • Sadarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Nyamat Khan. Took Khayal singing to its peak.
  • Adarang School : A school of Hindustani Music founded by Firoz Khan. It was known for its exquisite beauty and philosophical content in Khayal singing.

Personalities of Hindustani Music :

  • Rabindranath Tagore : Composed unique songs under the title of Rabindra Sangeet.
  • Kazi Nazrul Islam : The famous patriotic poet of Bengal.
  • Amir Khusrau : At the court of Alauddin Khilji. He invented Sitar, Khayal & Qawwali. He invented Rekht, the precursor of Urdu language.
  • Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande : Founded Morris College of Music at Lucknow. His pen name was Chatura. His works are Hindustani Sangeet Padhati, Abhinava Raga Manjari, a short Historical Survey of Music of Upper India, Lakhya Sangeeta etc.
  • Vishnu Digambar Pulaskar : A great musician, he founded Gandharva Mahavidyalaya & Prayag Samiti. His Ram – dhun music, i.e. Raghupati Raghaba was sung during the Dandi March.
  • Tansen : Adorned the court of Akbar. He authored Sangeeta Sara and Ragmala. He established Senia Gharana.


Personalities of Carnatic Music :

  • Purandaradasa : Father of the Carnatic music. He was the first to standardize teaching methods of music in India. He wrote Maya Malavagaula.
  • Muthuswami Dikshitar : A well known exponent of Carnatic music. He composed various ragas of Carnatic music. He invented techniques with certain complex use of varying tempo. He innovated violin in India
  • Swami Thyagaraj : He was one of the Trinity of Carnatic music – two others being Shyama Shastri & Muthusami Dikshitar. His famous work is Bhakti Vijayam.
  • Shyama Shastri : Born in 1762 at Tiruvarur in a poor brahmin family, he rose to fame. His famous three swarajatis are in ragas – Bhairavi, Yadukulakambbodhi and Todi.
  • Swati Tirunal : Born in Travancore royal family in 1813, he encouraged both Hindustani and Carnatic music. He was proficient and fluent in many Indian languages. He is credited with 400 compositions in Carnatic music.
  • Vidyaratna : He put Carnatic music on scientific lines. He wrote Sangitasastra.

Musical Instruments & Persons :

  • Flute : Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Rajendra Prasada, Subhash Kamat, Narayan Ghosh, T Mahalingam.
  • Tabla : Ala Rakha Khan, Zakir Hussein, Ustad Shafat, Ahmad Khan, Latif Khan, Sheikh Dawood, Fazl Quereshi, Swapna Choudhuri.
  • Violin : L Subramanyam, T N Krishnan, Lalgudi Jayaraman, L Shankar, N Rajan, B Sunderarajan, Chowdiah, Kanyakumari.
  • Veena : S Balachander, Doraisamy Iyenger, Kalyan Krishna.
  • Sitar : Pd. Ravishankar, Nishant Khan, Debu Choudhary, Shujjat Khan, Imrat Khan, Shamim Ahmed Khan.
  • Shehnai : Bismillah Khan.
  • Sarangi : Ramvatar Shashtri, Sabri Khan, Hanuman Mishra, Ram Narain.
  • Santoor : Shiv Kumar Sharma, Nandu Mule, Bhajan Sapori, Viraswami Pillai.
  • Harmonium : Purushottam Walawalker, Appa Jalgaonkar.
  • Pakhaj : Pagal Das, Chatrapati Singh.
  • Mridangam : Mani Ayyar, U. Shivaraman.
  • Sarod : Debashish Bhattacharya, Zarin Daroowala, Briji Narayan, Amjad Ali Khan Bangash.
  • Mandolin : U. Srinivas
  • Saxophone : Kadri Gopalnath

Indian music festivals

Category
Authority to whom applications are to be sent
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Office of the Joint Sec
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General Studies Question Bank CD
Gharanas

SectionQuestion NumberDomains
MBA
A1 - 25Verbal Ability
B26 - 40General Knowledge
C41 - 70Numerical Data Analysis
D71 - 100Reasoning and Intelligence
MA
A1 - 40Mathematics
B41 - 55General English
C56 - 70General Knowledge
D71 - 85Current Affairs
E86 - 100General Economics
MSc
A1 - 34Chemistry
B35 - 67Physics
C68 - 100Mathematics
SubjectsNumber of QuestionsMarks
Biology100100
Physics5050
Chemistry5050
Total200200

Musical instruments

DRUMS :

  • Daff : tribal folk of central India.
  • Ghera : tribal folk of Rajasthan.
  • Chengu : tribal folk of Orissa.
  • Khanjari : Himachal Pradesh & Ladakh.
  • Swrya Parai & Chandra Parai : Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh.
  • Kanjira : Kerala & Karnataka ( tappata )
  • Gna ( two faced ) : Ladakh.
  • Dholaka & Mridanga : Orissa & Bengal.
  • Chenda : Kerala.
  • Pakhavaj : Avadh & North India.
  • Pung : Manipur.
  • Sri Khole : Bengal.
  • Tavil : Tamil Nadu.
  • Barrel Mrudanyan : Karnataka.
  • Eddakk : Kerala.
  • Tumbakhari : Kashmir.
  • Jamukku : Tamil Nadu.
  • Burra : Andhra Pradesh.
  • Dhumsa & Nisan : Jharkhand & Orissa.
  • Mridangam : Tamil Nadu.

Wind Instruments :

  • Singhe : Bhils of Maharashtra.
  • Kohukas : Pharias of Deccan.
  •  Reli – Ki : Manipur & Meghalaya.
  • Singi : Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kombu, Bankya : South India.
  • Tutari, Bhongal : Maharashtra.
  •  Kahal : Orissa.
  • Bhenr : Uttar Pradesh.
  • Thunchem : Himachal Pradesh & Ladakh.
  • Tiruchinnan : Andhra Pradesh.
  • Narh Flute : Rajasthan.
  • Kolaku : Karnataka.
  • Titti, Mashak : Assam.
  • Nagasvaram : Karnataka Music.
  • Shehnai : Hindustani Music.

 Stringed Instruments :

  • Gopa Yatra : Orissa & Benga.l
  • Tune Tune : Orissa & Bengal ( folk ).
  • Premtal, Bung : Orissa ( Santhala ).
  • Jamadika : Andhra Pradesh.
  • Santoor : Kashmir.
  • Tanpoora : North India.
  • Veena : Hindustani Music.
  • Sarod : Rohilakhand ( Uttar Pradesh ).
  • Pena Veena : Manipur.
  • Baman Veena : Orissa.
  • Kunju Veena : Kerala.
  • Violin : Tamil Nadu.

Solid Instruments ( Idiophones ) :

  • Jaltaranga : North India.
  • Ghungroo : North India.
  • Jagte : Andhra Pradesh.
  • Chennala : Kerala.
  • Sree Mandal : Rajasthan.
  • Dandiya : Gujarat.
  • Kolu : South India.
  • Song Kong : Assam.
  • Tak Dutrang : Nagaland.
  • Katola : Chhatisgarh.

General Studies Question Bank CD
Indian Fairs and Festivals

January :

  • Mamallapuram Dance Festival ( Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu )
  • Pongal ( Tamil Nadu ) : This is the harvest festival marked by worship and festivities which include lively cattle races.
  • International Kite Festival ( Ahmedabad, Gujarat )
  • Republic Day ( National Holiday – Delhi and State capitals ) : A splendid parade in Delhi on the 26 of January ( open to the public ), commemorates the day India became a Republic in 1950. The President of India takes the salute.

February :

  • Surajkund Crafts Mela ( Surajkund, Haryana ) : A delightful handicrafts and handloom fair held annually at Surajkund, on the outskirts of Delhi.
  • Desert Festival ( Jaisalmer, Rajasthan ) : A three – day extravaganza of colour, music and gaiety
  • Deccan Festival {Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh ) : The festival celebrates the cultural grace of the city. Lustrous pearls are displayed and Hyderabadi cuisine can be lip smacking
  • Goa Carnival : Held in mid – February just before Lent, a carnival with lively processions of floats, strumming guitars and dancing.

General Studies Question Bank CD
March :

  • Khajuraho Dance Festival ( Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh ) : A week long festival of classical dances against the backdrop of the Khajuraho temples.
  • Shivratri Natyanjali Festival ( Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu ) : A five – day classical dance musical festival at the 1000 year old Nataraja Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiva ( as the celestial Lord of Dance ).
  • Holi ( All over North India ) : The exuberant festival of colours during spring. It heralds the end of winter and beginning of spring. People greet each other with colour powder which is smeared on your face, hands and whichever part of the body is exposed.

April :

  • Ganguar Festival ( Jaipur, Rajasthan ) : 18 days of festivities all across Rajasthan, dedicated to Gauri ( consort of Lord Shiva ).
  • Baisakhi : Baisakhi, is both the Hindu New Year and the harvest festival of North India.

May :

  • Pooram ( Thrissur, Kerala ) : Processions of beautifully caparisoned elephants at the Vadakkunnathan Temple, rounded off by dazzling fireworks at night.
  • Urs ( Ajmeer, Rajasthan ) : Held at the Dargah ( mausoleum ) of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, pilgrims gather in lakhs to pay homage to him on his death anniversary.

June :

Hemis Festival ( Leh, Ladakh ) : Held in the courtyard of the biggest Buddhist monastery in Ladakh, it celebrates the birth anniversary of Guru Padmasambhava.

July :

  • Rath Yatra ( Puri, Orissa ) : The spectacular chariot festival moves as a juggernaut, carrying images of Lord Jagannath, his sister Subhadhra and borther Balbhadhra in three immense chariots pulled by thousands of devotees.
  • International Mango Festival {Delhi ) : Savour the innumerable varieties of the King of Fruits, as this unusual, lively festival.

August :

  • Janmashtami ( Celebrated all over India ) : The birth of Lord Krishna at midnight, is celebrated with great fervour especially in Brindavan and Mathura.
  • Independence Day ( National Holiday ) : 15th August, 1947, the day India gained independence, is commemorated as a National holiday. The Prime Minister unfurls the national flag on the ramparts of the Red Fort, at New Delhi.
  • Onam ( Kerala ) : The most important festival of the state heralds the harvest season and honours the ancient King Mahabali.

September :

Ganesh Chaturthi ( in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu ) : Dedicated to the elephant – headed God Ganesha, it is an 11 day festival. Images of the Ganesha are immersed on the last day.

October :

  • Gandhi Jayanti ( National Holiday ) : Celebrates the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the ‘Father of the Nation’ on 2nd October.
  • Dussehra ( all over the country ) : Ten day celebrations culminating in the burning of the effigies of Ravana, Meghnath and Kumbhakarna signifies the Victory of Good over evil. A major festival in Mysore, Karnataka.
  • Navratri ( Ahmedabad & Vadodara, Gujarat ) : Coinciding with Dussehra, this ancient and colourful festival honours the Divine Shakti which supports the universe.
  • Vrindavan Sharadotsava ( Vrindavan, U.P ) : A Presentation of the many – facted culture of Brajbhoomi.
  • Diwali ( throughout India ) : October or November. This ‘Festival of Lights’ celebrates the return of Lord Ram to his kingdom of Ayodhya.

November :

  • Pushkar Mela ( Pushkar, Rajasthan ) : Cattle and camel trading and camel racing bring alive the desert.
  • Hampi Festival ( Hampi, Karnataka ) : The magnificent ruins of Hampi come alive during this lively festival of music and dance.

December :

Konarak Dance Festival ( Konarak, Orissa ) : Celebrated dancers from all across the country perform with the backdrop of the Sun temple. A crafts and food ‘mela’ ( ‘mela’ = fair ) adds to the festive mood.
{tab=Dances}
Indian Dances – Statewise

Regional Dance Forms

  • Andhra Pradesh : Ghanta Mardala, Banjara.
  • Assam : Canoe Dance, Tabal Chongbi ( Holi ), Satriya, Rakhal Leela, Bihu, Khela, Gopala, Jata Jatin.
  • Bengal : Kathi Dance, Baul dance, Chhau, Brita.
  • Bihar : Jatra, Natua, jijhiya, Barlanga Dance, Karma, Kathaputti, Bakho, Samachakya.
  • Gujarat : Bhavi, Garba, Dandiya Raas, Tirpani, Gomph, Zeriyun, Gheriya Raas.
  • Haryana : Daph, Dhamal, Gugga, Gagor, Jhumar, Koria, Loor, Phag.
  • Himachal Pradesh : Bhali, Chharba, Dangi, Jadda, Jhainta, Kinnaur, Mahasu, Thoda, Thali.
  • Jammu & Kashmir : Rauo : by women during, harvest; Hikat : expression of joy and love by boys and girls; Damali : by men in temple; Lhapas & Manipas : Ladakh; Dandi Nacha : bamboostic dance; Dhumal : by Wattal Tribe.
  • Karnataka : Huttari, Suggi, Yakshagana, Dholu, Kunitha.
  • Kerala : Kudiyattam, Kaliyattam, Kaikottikali, Ottam Tullal, Sari, Tappatrikkali, Padayani, Kathakkali.
  • Lakshadweep : Lava, Bhavada.
  • Madhya Pradesh : Dagla, Ghera.
  • Maharashtra : Katha, Tamasha, Levani, Gafa, Karku, Mauni, Dahikala, Lezim.
  • Manipur : Ras Dances, Khamba Thoibi, Pung, Cholan, Manipuri.
  • Nagaland : Bamboo dance, Kabui.
  • Orissa : Dandanatta, Chhau, Yatra, Ghumara, Bharat leela, Dalkhai, Chaitri Ghorha, Jadur, Odissi.
  • Punjab : Giddha : by women at harvest; Bhangra : by both men and women.
  • Rajasthan : Chakri serpant, Gangore, Ginad, Gopika leela, Jhulan, Jhumar, Khayal, Susini.
  • Tamil Nadu : Kolattam, Kavadiattam, Karagam, Kummi, Bharata Natyam.
  • Tripura : Hajagiri.
  • Uttar Pradesh : Rass leela, Kajari, Jhora, Nautanki, Chappeli.
  • Uttaranchal : Jhumelia, Chaunfla, Harkia Baul, Chholiya.

General Studies Question Bank CD
Statewise Classical Dances with Exponents

  • Bharata Natyam ( Tamil Nadu ) : Rukmini Devi Arundale ( of Kalakshetra Fame ) T Balasarswathi, Yamini Krishna Murthy, Padma Subramaniyam, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Vijayantimala Bali, Leela Samson.
  • Kathak ( UP ) : Birju Maharaj, Kalka – Binda Gharana, Kumudini Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi, Rani Kama, Saswati Sen, Roshan Kumari, Gopi Krishna, Sitara Devi, Sambhu Maharaj, Ananda Shankar, Shovna Narayan, Bhandara Mangal, Kulgrani Bhatt, Gitanjali Lal.
  • Kathakali ( Kerala ) : Mukunda Raja ( of Kalmandalam fame ), Koppan Nair, V Kunju Kurupu, Gopinathan Krishnan, VN Menon, Kottakkal Sivaraman.
  • Kuchipudi ( Andhra Pradesh ) : T Balasarswathi, Esther Sherman, Ragini Devi, Indrani Rahman, Swapna Sundari, Sobha Naidu, Raja Reddy, Radha Reddy, Vempati Chinna Saryam, Satyanarayanan Sharma, Sudha Sekhara, Rajaram Rao, G Sarala
  • Manipuri ( Manipur ) : Jhaveri Sisters, Charu Mathur, Sadhona Bose, Bipin Singh, Rita Devi, Savita Mehta, Tandor Devi.
  • Mohiniattam ( Kerala ) : Kalyani Amma, Shanta Rao, Roshan Vajifdar, Bharati Shivaji, Kanak Rele.
  • Odissi ( Orissa ) : Kelucharan Mohapatra, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behera, Sonal Mansingh, Kabita Dwivedi, Kiran Sehgal, Madhvi Mudgal, Sharon Lewon, Myrta Barvil, Indarani Rahman, Priyambada Mohanty.


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Chhau

The Chhau dancer communicates inner emotions and themes through cadences of body flexions, movements and kinetic suggestions. ‘Shadow’, ‘Disguise’ and ‘Image’ are the most common interpretations due to the extensive use of masks in this dance form. The martial movements of Chhau have led to another interpretation of the word as meaning ‘to attack stealthily’ or ‘to hunt’. Three styles of Chhau exist born from the three different regions of Seraikella ( Bihar ), Purulia ( West Bengal ), and Mayurbhanj ( Orissa ). Unlike other Indian Classical dance forms, vocal music in Chhau hardly exists! Instrumental music and a variety of drums like the Dhol, Dhumba, Nagara, Dhansa and Chadchadi provide the accompaniment. The Chhau dances are complex combinations of Folk and Classical motifs.
General Studies Question Bank CD
Statwise Folk Theatre With Importance

  • Ankianat ( Assam ) : An one act play about religious themes
  • Bhavai ( Rajasthan ) : Rituals to propitiate the mother Goddess
  • Jashin ( Jammu & Kashmir ) : Honouring gods & have end with comedy. Actors mingle with people
  • Karyala ( Himachal Pradesh ) : About questions of life & death
  • Khyal ( Rajasthan ) : Cultural & social education through singing & musical instruments
  • Krishnanattam ( Kerala ) : Depiction of life of Lord Krishna
  • Kudiyattam ( Kerala ) : Elaborate presentation of Sanskrit dramas
  • Macha ( Madhya Pradesh ) : Stage shows on the day of Holi about mythological stories
  • Mudiyettu ( Kerala ) : Performed as a ritual in Kali temples
  • Nautanki ( Uttar Pradesh ) : A music theatre
  • Rasleela ( Uttar Pradesh ) : About life of Lord Krishna
  • Saang ( Haryana ) : Legend, dancing & singing interwoven with comic scenes
  • Tamasha ( Maharashtra ) : A singing & dancing party about political & social themes
  • Therukkoothu ( Tamil Nadu ) : A street theatre of dance & music
  • Theyyam ( Kerala ) : A form of ancestor worship
  • Yatra ( Orissa ) : About social & religious themes
  • Zaratra ( Zatuas ) ( Goa ) : Annual celebration of a particular deity of a particular temple.

Folk Dances of India

  • Andhra Pradesh : Guravayyalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu
  • Assam : Lankhon Phuza, Lahaw,  Bihu, Sattriya, Dhemali
  • Arunachal Pradesh : Popir, Rikhampada, Ponung, Dafla, Nyida Parik, Bardo Chham, Riju Dune
  • Bihar : Jadur
  • Chhattisgarh : Parab, Bhojali, Gaur
  • Gujarat : Garba, Kahadia, Dandia Rasa, Hudo
  • Goa : Dhangar, Tarangmel, Morulem, Bhadap
  • Himachal Pradesh : Chham Chhank, Naati, Tushimig, Namagen
  • Haryana : Loor and Phagun
  • Jammu and Kashmir : Kud, Bachcha Nagma, Rouf and Hikat, Jabro
  • Jharkhand : Jitia
  • Kerala : Tirayattam, Teyyam, Pookkavadi, Kolam Tulfal, Karadiyattam, Padayani, Poothamkali, Tappumelakkali, Kalaripayettu, Kolkali, Parichhamuttumkali, Velakali, Oachirakali, Yatrakali
  • Karnataka : Bhoota, Pata – da Kunita, Suggi Kunita, Dollu Kunita
  • Laddakh : Laddakhi Marriage Dance
  • Lakshadweep : Kolkali
  • Meghalaya : Shad Ronkhla, Hazong, Zemi, Maring
  • Madhya Pradesh : Baredi, Chilori, Hiroria, Sarhul, Saila – Reena, Kanara, Bhagoria, Rayee, Bana, Phagnoi, Jhamta, Madai, Bilma
  • Mizoram : Cheraw, Solakia
  • Maharashtra : Gaja Nach, Songi Mukhawate, Vaghya – Murali, Lezim
  • Manipur : Lai Haroba, Ariba Pala, Maibi, Thisham, Lam – Kut – Lam, Paos Jagoi, Kumpitlung, Pung Cholam, Thang – Ta, Dhimsa
  • Nagaland : Wilang Hem, Teri Chha
  • Orissa : Bijja Pandu, Rasar – Kali, Koya, Gotipua, Ghumra, Puchi, Paika Nacha and Paikali, Dalkhai, Hemant, Chaiti Ghoda Nata
  • Punjab : Bhangra, Jhumar, Karthi, Gidda
  • Pondicherry : Garadi
  • Rajasthan : Dandia Gair, Jhoria, Kachchi Ghori, Chari, Ghoomar, Kalbelia, Tera Taali
  • Sikkim : Tendong faat, Dhan Nach, Singhi Chham, Kar – gnok – Lok, Gnela Kipa
  • Tamil Nadu : Karagam, Kavadi, Kokali – kattai, Devar – attam, Puliyattam, Tappettai, Silambattam.
  • Tripura : Hazagiri, Lebang Bomani
  • Uttar Pradesh : Jagar, Dhobi, Chhapeli, Chaufla, Tharuha, Bhil Dhol, Chholia, Churkula
  • West Bengal : Nak Cheng Rennie.

General Studies Question Bank CD

Paintings – Various Schools

  • Prehistoric Paintings ( Bhirnbetka, Jogimara, Adamgarh, Mirzapur, Kupagullu );
  • Cave Painting ( Ajanta, Bagh, Sittannavasal );
  • Pala School( Bengal );
  • Lepakshi School( Vijayanagar );
  • Mewar School ( Rajasthan );
  • Marwar School( Jodhpur and Nagaur );
  • Kishangarh ( Rajastan )
  • Bundi; Pahari Painting ( Punjab and Himachal Pradesh );
  • Hyderabadi Style ( Bijapur );
  • Thanjavur ( Thanjauur );
  • Raghurajpur ( Orissa );
  • Pithoro ( Gujarat ); >
  • Apabhramsa School( Gujarat );
  • Mughal School ( Indo – Persian style );
  • Tanjore Glass Paintings ( Mysore and Tanjore ).

Personalities – Painting

  • Rabindra Nath Tagore ( 1861 – 1941 ) : He started painting from 1893 onwards and emerged as a creative exponent of graphic art in 1928. He had a flair for calligraphy. His paintings and drawings are generally of small sizes. He used dominant black ink lines.
  • Nandalal Bose ( 1882 – 1966 ) : He remained nationalistic inspite of the fact that he was aware of prevailing international trends. He preferred Oriental rather than Western. He was influenced by Upanishads, Ajanta Paintings, Mughal Miniatures. He fused these with Chinese and Japanese techniques. He was a master of bold lines. He belonged to the Bengal School and painted Mahabharata scenes like Kama worshiping the Sun, Gandhari and Vow of Bhishma. He also painted Yama, Sati, Dronacharya and Shiva drinking poison. He also painted subjects from nature.
  • Jamini Roy ( 1887 – 1972 ) : He attempted to create a distinct indigenous style in seeking inspiration from folk art tradition ( Kalighat Pata ) as against the elitist approach of the Bengal School. He used firm and majestic curves in simple forms. His pictures are bold and static. He used mineral and vegetable dyes popularly used in the villages to identify with the village ethos. He painted large fish shaped eyes and oval faces which show the influence of the Jaina School. He omitted light and shade.
  • Amrita Sher Gil ( 1913 – 1941 ) : She was born of a Hungarian mother and a Sikh father. Before her tragic demise at the age of 28, she produced important works which shows influence of Ajanta paintings, Rajputs and Mughal miniatures. Her paintings were Indian in spirit which shows elements of silence and static peace. Her painting shows her concern for poverty. She used real models and monochromatic colour at times for her paintings. Her work showed the fusion of the Eastern and Western Style.
  • Arpita Sen : Her paintings show an arbitrary approach to form, space and colourfull of personal fantasy. She carried decoration to the paint of scattering small flowers, dots and other patterns in the spaces unoccupied by the main figures. She fabricates her paintings like a tapestry with a variety of repetitive motives spread all over, simplified in form and modified in colour.
  • A Ramachandran : He is the figurative painter who was influenced by the murals of Kerala temples and tribal art. He used light and shade ( chiaroscuro ) technique.
  • MF Hussain : He is a symbol of modern Indian art with international flavour. He paints a black social environment, often using distorted human figures, horses and objects. At times he used highly violent distortions in form and colour to display emotions. His famous works include Ramayana, Mahabharata, Mother Teresa and images of the British Raj. His works show the influence of Picasso, Gris and Leger.
  • Jatin Das : His paintings are mainly involved in the expression of ‘the man – women relationship’. He paints young female and massive male nudes who are emotionally charged. They are intended to provoke the sensual feelings.
  • Satish Gujral : He is a painter, sculptor, muralist and architect in one. His dynamic social – realistic paints can be seen in the paintings of Partition ( revolution ) which shows influence of Mexican grotesque distortion. He later indulged in abstract art ( seen in Sahasra Chakra ) and expressionism ( seen in burnt wood relief of Sakti and Ganesa ). He is one of the few contemporary artists who is influenced by socio – political events. He is a powerful expressionist.
  • Ravi Varma : He re – established Indian art through Western methods, techniques and traits. He introduced oil painting in India. His chief concern was Indian life, mythology in oil painting of Western style.
  • Abanindranath Tagore : He founded ‘Bengal School’ along with E.B. Havell. He led the neo – art movement i.e. to regenerate ancient and medieval artist’s supreme mental weapon in modern setting.

Indian Sculptures and their Features

  • Carved Railings : Adornes Stupas ( Amaravati ).
  • Caves : Ancient most. Influenced by religious practices ( Gaya, Bhimbetka etc. ).
  • Chalukyan School ( Vesara ) : Mixture of Nagar & Dravida Styles, Chittor ( Aihole, patdakal ).
  • Chandela School : Erotic sculpture ( Khajuraho ).
  • Chola School ( Dravid ) : Gopurams or Gates ( Tanjore ).
  • Gandhara Art : First statue of Buddha – a mixture Indian & Greek Hindu Method ( Peshawar region Afhanisthan ).
  • Hindu Art : Hindu temples of Nagara & Sikhara Styles ( Vidisa, Deogarh, Tigawa, Eran, Aihoie, Rajgriha ).
  • Hoyasala Art : Mature plan & general arrangement ( Mysore, Talakad, Halebid ).
  • Indo – Islamic : Arch, domes, vaultes, gardens, marble use pietradura ( Delhi, Agra, Jaunpur, Bengal, Hyderabad ).
  • Mathura School : Richly decorated deities of all religion ( Mathura ).
  • Nayak School : Temple complex ( Madurai ).
  • Orissa School> : Development of Shikharas ( Bhubaneswar, Puri, Konark ).
  • Pala School : Fine Hindu & Buddhist Statues ( Nalanda, Bodh Gaya ).
  • Pallava School : Monolithic temples ( Mahabalipuram ).
  • Pillar : Adornes Ashokan Edicts ( Rampurua, Sarnatha ).
  • Rajasthan School : High platforms & miniature towers ( MtAbu ).
  • Stupa : Buddhist religious architecture ( Sanchi, Amaravati, Barhut, Nagarjunakonda ).
  • Vijaya Nagar School : Decorated pillared halls ( Hampi ).

Important Caves of India

  • Aihoie & Badami ( Karnataka ) : Consists of 70 temples of Nagar style of different religions.
  • Ajanta ( Aurangabad ) : Fresco Paintings
  • Bagh ( Madhya Pradesh ( Malwa ) ) : Frescos & stone Sculpture
  • Barabara & Nagarjuni ( Gaya / Bihar ) : Donated to Ajivika sects
  • Bedsa ( Maharastra ) : Chaitya supported by elephant carves pillars
  • Bhaja ( Maharastra ) : 18 Buddhist caves built for runs
  • Elephanta ( Mumbai ) : Brahmanical temples flanked by elephant statues
  • Ellora ( Aurangabad ) : Rashtrakuta & Chalukya temples
  • Jageswari ( Salsette / Maharashtra ) : Mahayan Architecture
  • Junagarh ( Gujarat ) : Buddhist caves
  • Kanheri ( Konkan ) : Buddhist Chaitya
  • Karle ( Maharastra ) : Hinayana Chaitya
  • Montpezir ( Mahatrastra ) : Portuguese settlement ruins
  • Nasik( Maharashtra ) : 23 Buddhist caves
  • Udayagiri & Khandagiri ( Orissa ) : Built by Kharavela for Jaina monks
  • Undavalli ( Andhra Pradesh ) : Granite Vishnu Statue.

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