Home Rule Movement in India (1916) :
- After Tilak’s return, having served sentence of six years in Mandalay (in Burma), he tried securing the readmission of himself and other extremists into the INC.
- With the need being felt for popular pressure to attain concessions, disillusionment with Minto – Morley reforms and war – time miseries, Tilak and Annie Besant readied to assume leadership.
- Started by B.G. Tilak (April, 1916) at Poona and Annie Besant and S. Subramania Iyer at Adyar, near Madras (September, 1916).
- Tilak’s league was to work in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central Province and Berar and Annie Besant’s in the rest of India.
- Objective : Self – government for India in the British Empire.
- Tilak linked up the question of Swaraj with the demand for the formation of linguistic states and education in vernacular language. He gave the slogan : Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.
- The Mahratta and Kesari of Tilak and Annie Besant’s New India, Commonweal and Young India became the organs of the Home Rule movement.
- Muslim league also supported it.
Lucknow Pact 1916 :
- Happened following a war between Britain and Turkey leading to anti – British feelings among Muslims.
- Both INC and ML concluded this (Congress accepted the separate electorates and both jointly demanded for a representative government and dominion status for the country).
August Declaration 1917 :
- After the Lucknow Pact, a British policy was announced which aimed at “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration for progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British empire”. This came to be called the August Declaration.
- Because of Hindu – Muslim unity exhibited in Lucknow Pact.
- The Montague – Chelmsford reforms or the act of 1919 was based on this declaration.
Rowlatt Act in India (March 18, 1919) :
- This gave unbridled powers to the government, to arrest and imprison suspects without trial for two years maximum. This law enabled the Government to suspend the right of Habeas Corpus, which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.
- Caused a wave of anger in all sections. It was the first country – wide agitation by Gandhiji and marked the foundation of the Non Cooperation Movement.
- During March and April 1919, the country witnessed a remarkable political awakening in India. There were hartals, processions and demonstrations everywhere.
Jalliawala Bagh Massacre Information (April 13, 1919) :
- People were agitated over the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 10, 1919.
- General O’ Dyer fired at people who assembled in the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar.
- As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and thousands injured.
- Rabindranath Tagore returned his Knighthood in protest. Sir Shankaran Nair resigned from Viceroy’s Executive Council after this.
- Hunter Commission was appointed to enquire into it.
- On March 13, 1940, Sardar Udham Singh killed O’Dyer when the latter was addressing a meeting in Caxton Hall, London.
Khilafat Movement 1920 :
- Muslims were agitated by the treatment done with Turkey by the British in the treaty that followed the First World War.
- Two brothers, Mohd. Ali and Shaukat Ali started this movement, along with Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani. It was jointly led by the Khilafat leaders and the Congress.
- Gandhiji viewed the Khilafat agitation as a golden opportunity for bringing the Hindus and Muslims together.
- On August 31, 1920, the Khilafat Committee launched a non – cooperation movement.
- Gandhiji now pressed the Congress to adopt a similar plan of action. Although it was initially opposed by C.R. Das, but was later passed unopposed.
- It was the first mass – based political movement under Gandhiji.
- Congress passed the resolution in its Calcutta session in September, 1920.
- The movement envisaged :
- Surrender of titles and honorary offices.
- Resignation from nominated offices and posts in the local bodies.
- Refusal to attend government, darbars and boycott of British courts by the lawyers.
- Refusal of general public to offer themselves for military and other govt, jobs, and boycott of foreign goods etc.
- C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru gave up their legal practice and Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the Civil Service.
- The Prince of Wales visited India during this period. But he was greeted with empty streets and downed shutters when he came (November 17, 1921).
History of Chauri Chaura Incident 1922 :
- The Congress session at Allahabad in December 1921, decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji was appointed its leader.
- But before it could be launched, a mob of people at Chauri – Chaura (near Gorakhpur) clashed with police and burnt 22 police men on February 5, 1922.
- This compelled Gandhiji to withdraw the Non Cooperation movement on February 12, 1922.
Swaraj Party 1923 :
- Motilal Nehru, C.R. Das and N.C. Kelkar (called Pro – changers) demanded that the nationalists should end the boycott of the legislative councils, enter them and expose them.
- But the no – changers like Rajendra Prasad and Rajgopalachari adhered to the Gandhian program of boycott of legislatures. The pro – changers formed the Swaraj party on January, 1923, contested the elections and embarrassed the government by opposing its measures.
- In the 1923 elections, the Swarajists got a majority in Bengal and Central Province.
- The two sections were reunited in 1930 after the Lahore session.
Simon Commission 1927 :
- Constituted under John Simon, to review the political situation in India and to introduce further reforms and extension of parliamentary democracy.
- Indian leaders opposed the commission, as there were no Indians in it.
- Congress turned the boycott into the movement.
- Simon and his colleagues landed in Bombay on February 3, 1928, and were greeted with hartals and black – flag demonstrations.
- The Government used brutal repression and police attacks to break the popular opposition. At Lahore, Lala Lajpat Rai was severely beaten in a lathi – charge. He succumbed to his injuries on November 17, 1928.
The Nehru Report of 1928 :
- After boycotting the Simon commission, all political parties constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to evolve c rid determine the principals of a constitution for India. It remains memorable as the first major Indian effort to draft a constitutional framework for India, complete with lists of Central and Provincial subjects and fundamental rights. It suggested dominion status for the country.
- The committee comprised Tej Bahadur Sapru, Ali Imam, M.S. Aney, Mangal Singh, Sohaib Qureshi, G.R.Pradhan and Subhash Chandra Bose.