History of Aurangzeb Alamgir

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Aurangzeb Alamgir :: List of Mughal Emperors

History of Aurangzeb Alamgir

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Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 – 1707) :

  • At the time of Shahjahan’s illness, Dara was in Delhi and the other brothers were in different places – Shuja in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb in Deccan.
  • Aurangzeb first defeated the Imperial army in the Battle of Dharmat and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of Samugarh.
  • Thereafter, he entered Agraand crowned himself with the title of ‘Alamgir’ (conqueror of the world).
  • Under him, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was formed.
  • His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods: first in the affairs of N.India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.
  • In his rule, various rebellions took place – Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in Bundelkhand.
  • He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
  • In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
  • In 1679, he reimposed jaziyah. Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ‘jharokha-darshan’ were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins.
  • When he was conducting the campaign against Marwar, his son Akbar rebelled in 1681.
  • The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire stretched from Kashmir in die north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
  • Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri.
  • Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) was appointed.
  • He was called a ‘Darvesh’ or a ‘Zinda Pir’.
  • He also forbade Sati.

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