Mughal Emperor Babar :: List of Mughal Emperors
Babar Emperor (1526 – 1530) :
- Was a descended of Timur on his father’s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother’s side. His family belonged to the Chaghtai section of the Turkish race and were commonly known as Mughals.
- Originally ruledover Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.
- He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.
- In this Babar used the Rumi (Ottoman) device of lashing a large number of carts to form a defending wall with breastwork in between to rest guns (Tulghama system of warfare). His artillery was led by Ustad Ali and Mustafa.
- Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in 1527. This weakened the Rajput confederacy and strengthened Babar’s position. Babar took the tide of “Ghazi” after that.
- Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in 1528.
- Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in 1529.
- His victories led to rapid popularization of gunpowder and artillery in India.
- Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh, Kabul.
- His memoir, the Tazuk – i – Baburi in Turki language is a classic of world literature. It shows his humane outlook and sensitivity to the beauty of nature. Also wrote ‘Masnavf.
Note : After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India.
This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.