Fall of Mughal Empire :: List of Mughal Emperors
Decline of Mughal Empire :
The empire lost power after Aurangzeb’s rule. His successors were weak and incapable rulers.
Bahadur Shah (1707 – 1712) : Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah – i – Bekhabar. He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.
Jahandar Shah (1712 – 13) : First puppet Mughal emperor. He abolished jaziya.
Farrukhsiyar (1713 – 19) : Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers. He executed Banda Bahadur. Farrukhsiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719.
Mohammad Shah (1719 – 48) : Nadir Shah (of Iran) defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond. During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam – ul – Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal and Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire. He was a pleasure – loving king and was nick – named Rangeela.
Ahmad Shah (1748 – 54) : During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir or Prime Minister of the empire.
Shah Alam II (1759 – 1806) : Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja – ud – Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were defeated.
- Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of power. The Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers) put three princes on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between Mohammad Shah and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam – ul – Muik).
- One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Abdali, invaded India repeatedly between 1748 – 1767. He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.
Akbar II (1806 – 37) : He gave Rammohan the title ‘Raja’. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his allowance.
Bahadur Shah II (1837 – 57) : He was confined by the British to the Red Fort. During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels. He was deported to Rangoon after that.
Kohinoor Diamond History :
Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21.6 gm) diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world it originated in India, belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers who fought bitterly over it at various points in history, and seized as a spoil of war, it became part of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India.
It is reputed to bring misfortune or death to any male who wears or owns it. Conversely, it is reputed to bring good luck to female owners.
Most sources agree that the Kohinoor was mined at Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh. It was first owned by Kakatiya dynasty, but the Kakatiya kingdom under Pratapa Rudra was ravaged in 1323 by Muhammad bin Tughluq.
From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally passing to Babur in 1526.
Shah Jahan had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. It was taken away by Nadir Shah in 1739 along with the Peacock Throne. After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 it came into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. It was passed down to his descendants until it was taken by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab in 1813.
From him, the gem passed on to the British. Ranjit Singhs successor, Duleep Singh gave the gem to Queen Victoria in 1851. In 1852, under the personal supervision of Victoria’s consort, Prince Albert, the diamond was cut from 1861 / 16 carats (37.21 gm) to its current 105.602 carats (21.61 gm), to increase its brilliance.
The stone is presently used as the centre piece of the crowns of the Queens consort of the United Kingdom. Queen Alexandra was the first to use the stone, followed by Queen Mary.
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