Lahore SessionGeneral Knowledge » History »
- On December 19, 1929, under the President ship of J.L.Nehru, the INC, at its Lahore session, declared Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence) as its ultimate goal.
- On December 31, 1929, the newly adopted tri-colour flag was unfurled and January 26, 1930 was fixedas the First Independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year.
- Rai Sahib Harvilas Sarda put forth a bill in the Legislative Assembly in 1928 with a view to secure prohibition of child marriage. The bill became an act in 1929 and is called the Sarda act of 1929.
- According to this act, a girl below 14 or a boy below 18 cannot contract marriage.
Dandi March 1930 :
- Bardoli Movement (1928) was a movement against the payment of land tax, led by Vallabh Bhai Patel. He got the name ‘Sardar’ from here.
- Also called the Salt Satyagraha.
- Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his Mar from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandi to break the salt law.
- He reached the sea shore on April 6, 1930.
- He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- The salt Satyagraha movement was taken up by C. Rajgopalacluri in Tamil Nadu and the hero of the Vaikom Satyagraha, K. Kalappan, in Malabar.
- The salt Satyagraha sparked off other forms of defiance. In the north – west, the Pathans under Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popularly known as the Frontier Gandhi, organized the society of ‘Khudai Khidmadgars’ (Servants of God), also known as Red Shirts. This movement even sparked off patriotism among the Indian soldiers in the British Army. The Garhwal soldiers refuse to fire on the people at Peshawar.
First Round Table Conference 1930 :
- It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on November 12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission.
- Boycotted by INC. Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.
- Postponed to January 2, 1931, in the absence of any major political party.
Gandhi Irwin Pact :
- Moderate statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
- The two (government represented by Irwin) signed a pact March 5, 1931.
- In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference.
- The government on its part released the political prisoner and conceded the right to make salt for consumption of villages along the coast.
- The Karachi session of 1931 endorsed the Gandhi – Irwin Pact. The Karachi session is also memorable for its resolution on Fundamental Rights and the National Economic Program.
Second Round Table Conference 1931 :
- Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald.
- In the Conference, Gandhiji demanded immediate establishment of a full responsible government at the Centre as well as in the Provinces with complete control over defence, external affairs and finance.
- However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo – Indians.
- MacDonald ended the session with an address which announced the creation of two new Muslim majority provinces, North West Frontier Province and Sindh, set up a committee on franchise, finance and states and held out the humiliating and the dangerous prospect of a unilateral British Communal Award if the Indians failed to agree among themselves.
- On Gandhiji’s arrival in Bombay, the Congress Working Committee decided to resume the Civil Disobedience Movement. In 1932, INC was declared an illegal organization and all its leaders were arrested. Gandhiji was sent to Yeravada jail in Poona.
- The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn in 1934, because after that Gandhiji decided to make Harijan work the central plank of his new rural constructive program.
- Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy of the British.
- Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and even backward classes.
- Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail (Poona) at that time, started a fast unto death against it.
Poona act 1932 September 25 :
- After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
- Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B.R. Ambedkar and M.C.Rajah became active.
- Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fast on the sixth day (September 25, 1932).
- In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased.
- Thus, the Poona pact agreed upon a joint electorate for upper and lower castes.
- Harijan upliftment now became the principal concern of Gandhiji. An All-India Anti – Untouchability League was started in September, 1932, and a weekly Harijan in Jan, 1933. On May 8, 1933, Gandhiji decided to begin a 21 day fast for the purification of himself and his associates for the Harijan cause.
- He started the Individual Civil Disobedience on August 1, 1933.