Provincial Kingdoms

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Provincial Kingdoms

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Bengal Province :

  • Broke away from Delhi under the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • In 1342, Ilyas Khan founded a new dynasty.
  • Famous sultan was Ghiyas-ud-din Azam who established friendly relations with China and encouraged trade and commerce.
  • The celebrated poet, Maladhar Basu, compiler of Sri-Krishna Vijay, was patronized by the Sultans and was given the title of ‘Gunaraja Khan’.
  • Shankaradeva and Chaitanya belonged to this time.
  • The province was occupied by Sher Shah Suri in 1538.

Gujarat Province India :

  • Broke away from Delhi in 1397, under Zafar Khan who assumed the title of Sultan Muzaffar Shah.
  • His grandson Ahmed Shah-I, built a new city, Ahmedabad. He built Jama Masjid of Ahmedabad and Tin Darwaza.
  • The next prominent ruler was Mahmud Begarha. In his reign, Portuguese set up a factory at Diu. His court poet was the Sanskrit scholar, Udayaraja.
  • In 1573, Akbar annexed Gujarat to his empire.

History of Malwa :

  • Malwa was annexed by Alauddin Khalji in 1305 and remained a part of Sultanate until its Governor; Dihawan Khan Ghuri asserted his independence in 1435.
  • It became powerful under the reign of Hushang Shah. He beautified the city Mandu with Jama Masjid, Hindol Mahal and Jahaz Mahal. Next ruler, Mahmud Khalji was defeated by Rana Kumbha.
  • Malwa became a part of Gujarat in 1531, and was finally annexed by the Mughals in 1562.

History of Kashmiris :

  • Kashmir continued to be under its Hindu rulers up to 1339. Its first Muslim ruler was Shamsuddin Shah.
  • The greatest Muslim ruler was Zainul Abidin (1420-70). Accepted the policy of broad tolerance, introduced the art of shawl-making in Kashmir, built Zaina Lanka and artificial island in the Wular Lake. Called the “Badshah” (the great Sultan) and “Akbar of Kashmir” by the Kashmiris.
  • Later ruled by Chak dynasty, which later submitted to Akbar in 1586.
  • It is said that women played a leading role in their history.

History of Mewar :

  • Alauddin Khalji captured its capital Chittor in 1303. But Rajput rule was soon restored by Rana Hamir (1326-64).
  • The greatest ruler of this house was the famous Rana Kumbha Karan (1538-68). Rana Kumbha built the famous victory tower or ‘Vijaya Stambh’ at Chittor to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Khalji of Malwa.
  • His court was adorned by Mandan who wrote many books on architecture (Parsad Mandan, Rupa Mandan).
  • Another important king was Rana Sangram Singh (1509-28), who defeated Mahmud-II of Malwa and Ibrahim Lodhi. But he was defeated by Babur at Khanua in 1527.

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