Shahjahan Emperor :: List of Mughal Emperors
- Able general and administrator.
- Had to face revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujjhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and in the Deccan (Khan – i – Jahan Lodi) in the initial years.
- Shahjahan’s policy of annexing the Deccan was quite successful. Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
- Shahjahan also expelled the Portuguese from Hughli, as they were abusing their trading privileges.
- In 1639, Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar from the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all failed.
- Made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan in 1636. Aurangzeb first tenure was till 1644.
- Aurangzeb’s second term as Viceroy in Deccan began in 1653 and continued till 1658. Aurangzeb built an effective Revenue System there (Murshid Kuli Khan was his dewan there).
- Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons – Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the ablest.
- Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and he was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in 1666.
- His reign is considered the ‘Golden Age of the Mughal Empire’.
- 2 Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci, visited during his reign.
History of Taj Mahal :
Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum lor his favourite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in 1631.
It was constructed in 22 years (1631 – 1653) by a workforce of 22,000. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal architecture.
The Taj Mahal was not designed by a single person. The project demanded talent from many quarters. Ustad Isa and Isa Muhammad Effendi are edited with a key role in the architectural design of the complex.
The main dome was designed by Ismail Khan. Qazim Khan cast the solid gold finial that crowned the Turkish masters dome.
Chiranjilal was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist. Amanat Khan was the chief calligrapher.
Muhammad Hanif was the supervisor of masons. Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan handled finances and the management of daily production.
The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel – inlaid cenotaph of the queen.
The only asymmetrical object in the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built beside the queen’s as an afterthought. It is often described as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
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