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Prime ISRO Establishments :: Space Programme of India | Launch Vehicle Technology

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Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Trivandrum :

  • Responsible for development of rocket launch vehicles.

Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota :

  • A launch complex and production centre of propellants.

ISRO Satellite Centre (SAC), Bangalore :

  • Responsible for space craft mainframe development.

Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad :

  • Main centre for space application and development of spacecraft’s payloads.

Auxiliary Propulsion System Unit (APSU), Bangalore and Trivandrum :

  • Develops propulsion control packages for launch vehicles and spacecrafts.

Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad :

  • Produces development and educational television programs.
  • ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC).
  • Consists of five ground stations located at Sriharikota, Kovalpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Car Nicobar and Ahmedabad with headquarters at Bangalore.

National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad :

  • For utilizing the potential of remote sensing, mainly in the context of natural resources survey.
  • Indian National Satellite Space Segment Project Office (INSAT – INSSPO).
  • Responsible for implementation and operation of the space segment for INSAT.
  • The Master Control Facility for INSAT spacecrafts is located at Hassan in Karnataka. The second centre is at Bhopal.

Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad :

  • To carry out research in outer space.

Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) :

  • A US – sponsored mission near Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala) is a rocket launching facility which became operational in 1963.

Rocket Propellent Plant (RPP), Thumba :

Commissioned in 1969, it is engaged in production of solid propellant blocks to support rocket launching programs.

Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES), Ahmedabad :

  • Set – up in 1967, to impart instruction in satellite communication technology.

Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Ahmedabad :

  • Set up in 1970, to conduct joint TV experiments.

Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station, Arvi, Pune :

  • India’s first satellite communication earth station. It operates through the INTERSAT – III satellite positioned over the Indian Ocean. Second station has been opened at Dehradun.

National Mesosphere Stratosphere Troposphere Reader Facility (NMRF) – Gadanki (near Tirupati) :

  • To carry out atmospheric research.

Milestones of Indian Space Program :

Secreted byEnzymesActs onProducts
Salivary GlandsPtyalin (Salivary Amylase)Starch, Glycogen, Dextrins Maltose, Isomaltose, 'Limit' Dextrins
Gastric Pepsin (Activated from Pepsinogen by HCI) Proteins, Calcium Paracaseinate Peptones
Rennin (Activated from Prorennin by HCI) CaseinParacasein and Whey Proteins
Gastric LipaseFatsFatty Acids and Monoglycerides
Pancreas Trypsin (Activated from Trypsinogen by Enterokinase) ProteinsPeptides
Chymotrypsin (Activated from Chymotrypsinogen by Trypsin) Proteins, CaseinPeptides, Paracasein (curd)
Pancreatic AmylaseStarch, Glycogen, Dextrins Maltose, Isomaltose, 'Limit' Dextrins
Pancreatic LipaseEmulsified fats Fatty Acids, Glycerol, Monoglycerides, Diglycerides and Triglycerides
Carboxypeptidases (Activated from Procarboxypeptidases by Trypsin) Peptides Amino Acids and Dipeptides
DNAseDNADeoxyribonucleotides
RNAseRNARibonucleotides
Intestinal GlandsIntestinal amylaseStarch, Glycogen, Dextrins Maltose, Isomaltose, 'Limit' Dextrins
Maltose MaltoseGlucose
IsomaltaseIsomaltoseGlucose
'Limit' Dextrinase'Limit' DextrinsGlucose
Invertase (Sucrase)SucroseGlucose, Fructose
LactaseLactoseGlucose, Galactose
Intestinal Lipase Emulsified fats (Tri-, Di- Monoglycerides) Fatty Acids, Glycerol
NucleotidasesNucleotides Nucleosides and Inorganic Phosphates
NucleosidasesNucleosides Nitrogenous Bases, Pentose Sugars