Principal Languages of India


Principal Languages of India

India has 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages.

Assamese :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language and is the official language of Assam.

Bengali :

  • It is one of the leading Indo – Aryan language and is die official language of West Bengal – Gujarati.
  • It is an Indo – Aryan language and is the official language of Gujarat.

Hindi :

  • The largest spoken Indo – Aryan language.
  • It is the official language of the Government of India.
  • Various dialects of Hindi are Khariboli, Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili and Bhojpuri.
  • In 6 States and UTs, Hindi is the official language.

Kannada :

  • It belongs to the Dravidian family & is the official langauge of Karnataka.


Kashmiri :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language.
  • It is often mistaken as the official language of Jammu and Kashmir.

Konkani :

  • It is the official language of Goa and is spoken by thousands of Konkanis in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Malayalam :

  • Belong to the Dravidian family and is the official language of Kerala.

Manipuri :

  • It is the official language of Manipur.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

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Marathi :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language and is the official language of Maharashtra.

Nepali :

  • It is spoken in parts of UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, etc.
  • It was added in 1992 by 71st Amendment.

Oriya :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language and is the official language of Orissa.

Punjabi :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language and is the official language of Punjab.

Sanskrit :

  • It is one of the earliest languages of the world.
  • Early Sanksrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit and covers the period between 2000 and 500 BC.

Sindhi :

  • It is an Indo – Aryan language.
  • It was added in 1967 by 21st Amendment.

Tamil :

  • It is the oldest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Tamil Nadu.

Telegu :

  • It is numerically the biggest of the Dravidian languages and is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.

Urdu :

  • It is die offiical langauge of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Modern Urdu developed due to the efforts of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817 – 1898).

Dogri :

  • It is generally spoken in Himachal Pradesh and Jammu.
  • It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit and Pahari Dogri languages.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment act, 2003.

Maithili :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the Maithilianchal region of Bihar.
  • It is the second State language of Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment act, 2003.

Santhali :

  • It is chiefly spoken in the area of Chhotanagpur Plateau in Jharkhand and Bihar.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment act, 2003.

Bodo :

  • It is chiefly spoken in Assam and its adjoining North – East States.
  • It has been added by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment act, 2003.

Comparative Strengths of Scheduled Languages (Census 2001) :
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