Nobel Prize Winners
Alfred Bernard Nobel who invented dynamite, died on 10 December, 1896 bequeathing 9,000,000 dollars, the interest of which is to be distributed yearly to those who had rendered service to mankind during the preceding year in different spheres.
Awards for Physics and Chemistry are made by the Swedish Academy of Science, Medicine or Physiology by the Stockholm Faculty of Medicine; Literature by the Swedish Academy of Literature and Peace by five persons elected by the Norwegian Parliament (Starting).
The fund is managed by a board of directors, the head of which is appointed by the Swedish Government.
Nobel Prize in Economics known as “Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics Science” was instituted by the Central Bank of Sweden, to mark its tercentenary in 1968. The Prize was first awarded in 1969.
Israelis Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko and American Irwin Rose for their work in discovering a process that lets cells destroy unwanted proteins.
Economics Sciences :
Norwegian Finn E.Eydland and American Edward C.Prescott for shedding light on how government polices and actions affect economics worldwide.
Austria Novelist and playwright, Elfriede Jelinek, for her works featuring themes of feminist Struggle between men and women.
Medicine or Physiology :
Richard Axel and Linda Buck (U.S.) for their work on genes that control the sense of smell.
Wangari Maathai to promote ecologically viable social, economic and cultural development in Kenya and in Africa and fight against the oppression of women.
H.David Politzer, Frank Wilczek and David J.Gross (U.S.) for showing how tiny quark particles interact, helping to explain everything from how a coin spins to how the Universe was built and also they showed how the attraction between quarks the basic building blocks of nature was strong when they were far apart and weak when they were close together.
Nehru Award for International Understanding :
This award carries an amount of fifteen lakh rupees in cash and a citation which is presented to the recipient at a special ceremony in India. It is awarded to those who have contributed for international peace and understanding.