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Nobel Prize for Literature
Literature is one of the five prize areas mentioned in Alfred Nobel’s will. The will was, however, partly incomplete. Nobel simply stated that prizes be given to those who, during the preceding year, “shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind” and that one part be given to the person who “shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction.”
Nobel Prize Literature Laureates
1901 : R. F. A. Sulley Prudhomme ( France ).
1902 : Th. Mommsen ( Germany ).
1903 : B. Bjørnson ( Norway ).
1904 : J. Echegaray ( Spain ) F. Mistral ( France ).
1905 : H. Sienkiewicz ( Poland ).
1906 : G. Carducci ( Italy ).
1907 : R. Kipling ( United Kingdom ).
1908 : R. Eucken ( Germany ).
1909 : S. Lagerlöf ( Sweden ).
1910 : P. Heyse ( Germany ).
1911 : M. Maeterlinck ( Belgium ).
1912 : G. Hauptmann ( Germany ).
1913 : R. Tagore ( India ).
1915 : R. Rolland ( France ).
1916 : V. v. Heidenstam ( Sweden ).
1917 : K. Gjellerup ( Denmark ). H. Pontoppidan ( Denmark ).
1919 : C. Spitteler ( Switzerland ).
1920 : K. Hamsun ( Norway ).
1921 : A. France ( J. A. Thibault ) ( France ).
1922 : J. Benavente ( Spain ).
1923 : W.B. Yeats ( Ireland ).
1924 : W. Reymont ( Poland ).
1925 : G.B. Shaw ( United Kingdom ).
1926 : Grazia Deledda ( Italy ).
1927 : H. Bergson ( France ).
1928 : Sigrid Undset ( Norway ).
1929 : Th. Mann ( Germany ).
1930 : S. Lewis ( USA ).
1931 : E. A. Karlfeldt ( Sweden ).
1932 : J. Galsworthy ( United Kingdom ).
1933 : I. A. Bunin ( France, Russia ).
1936 : E. O’Neill ( USA ).
1937 : R. Martin du Gard ( France ).
1938 : Pearl S. Buck ( USA ).
1939 : F. E. Sillanpää ( Finnland ).
1944 : Johannes V. Jensen ( Denmark ).
1945 : Gabriela Mistral ( L. Godoy y Alcayaga ) ( Chile ).
1946 : Hermann Hesse ( Switzerland, Germany ).
1947 : A. Gide ( France ).
1948 : T.S. Eliot ( United Kingdom, USA ).
1949 : W. Faulkner ( USA ).
1950 : Lord B. A. W. Russell ( United Kingdom ).
1951 : P. Lagerkvist ( Sweden ).
1952 : F. Mauriac ( France ).
1953 : Sir W. Churchill ( United Kingdom ).
1954 : E. Hemingway ( USA ).
1955 : H.K. Laxness ( Island ).
1956 : J.R. Jiménez ( Spain ).
1957 : A. Camus ( France ).
1958 : B. Pasternak ( Soviet Union ).
1959 : S. Quasimodo ( Italy ).
1961 : I. Andric ( Yugoslavia ).
1962 : J. Steinbeck ( USA ).
1963 : G. Seferis ( Greece ).
1964 : J. – P. Sartre ( France ).
1965 : M. Sholokhov ( Soviet Union ).
1966 : S.J. Agnon ( Israel, Austria ) N. Sachs ( Sweden, Germany ).
1967 : M.A. Asturias ( Guatemala ).
1968 : Y. Kawabata ( Japan ).
1969 : S. Beckett ( Ireland ).
1970 : A. Solzhenitsyn ( Soviet Union ).
1971 : P. Neruda ( Chile ).
1972 : H. Böll ( Germany ).
1973 : P. White ( Australien ).
1974 : E. Johnson ( Sweden ) H. Martinson ( Sweden ).
1975 : E. Montale ( Italy ).
1976 : S. Bellow ( USA ).
1977 : V. Aleixandre ( Spain ).
1978 : I. B. Singer ( USA ).
1979 : O. Elytis ( Greece ).
1980 : C. Milosz ( Poland ).
1981 : E. Canetti ( United Kingdom, Bulgaria ).
1982 : G. García Marquez ( Colombia ).
1983 : W. G. Golding ( United Kingdom ).
1984 : J. Seifert ( Czechoslovakia ).
1985 : Cl. Simon ( France ).
1986 : W. Soyinka ( Nigeria ).
1987 : J. Brodsky ( USA ).
1988 : N. Mahfuz ( Egypt ).
1989 : C. J. Cela ( Spain ).
1990 : Octavio Paz ( Mexico ).
1991 : Nadine Gordimer ( South Africa ).
1992 : Derek Walcott ( Saint Lucia, *1930 – 01 – 23 ).
1993 : Toni Morrison ( USA, *1931 – 02 – 18 ).
1994 : Kenzaburo Oe ( Japan ).
1995 : Seamus Heaney ( Ireland, *1939 – 04 – 13 ). for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.
1996 : Wislawa Szymborska ( Poland, *1923 – 07 – 02 ). for “poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”.
1997 : Dario Fo ( Italy, *1926 ). dramatist and actor, one of the leading figures in modern farce and political drama, “who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”.
1998 : Jose Saramago ( Portugal, *1922 ). a writer of prose, from a working – class background, “who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”.
1999 : Günter Grass ( Germany, *1927 – 10 – 16 ). “Whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”; 1959 first novel: “The Tin Drum”.
2000 : Gao Xingjian ( China / France, *1940 ). “for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”.
2001 : Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul ( United Kingdom ) for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.
2002 : Imre Kertész ( Hungary ) for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history.
2003 : John M. Coetzee ( South Africa ) who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider.
2004 : Elfriede Jelinek ( Austria ) for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power.
2005 : Harold Pinter ( United Kingdom ) who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms.
2006 : Orhan Pamuk ( Turkey ) who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.
2007 : Doris Lessing ( United Kingdom ) that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny.
2008 : Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio ( France ) author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.
2009 : Herta Müller ( Germany ) who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed.
2010 : Mario Vargas Llosa ( Peru ) for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat.
2011 : Tomas Tranströmer ( Sweden ) because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality.
2012 : Mo Yan ( People’s Republic of China ) who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary.
2013 : Alice Munro ( Canada ) master of the contemporary short story.
Nobel Prize Literature Articles
The Nobel Prize in Literature by Kjell Espmark. The history of the Literature Prize appears as a series of attempts to interpret an imprecisely worded will.
Topping Shakespeare Aspects of the Nobel Prize for Literature by Sture Allen. It has been asked how it may be determined whether one kind of literature is more ideal than another.
Nadine Gordimer and the South African Experience by Per Wastberg. Above her collected experience, the light sweeps, illuminating parts that would otherwise have lain in darkness.
Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize in Literature by Ake Erlandsson. Contents of the exhibition held at Centre Culturel Suédois, Paris, December 1997 and at Universite Rennes 2, March – April 1997.
Nobel Prize Educational
Tune in to the Nobel Literature Radio : Since the first Nobel Prize in 1901, official Nobel Lectures have been delivered by the Literature Laureates on the occasion of the Nobel Prize ceremonies held in Stockholm. Recordings have been made from some of them, or in some cases, of the acceptance speeches presented during the Nobel Banquet. Here, you can listen to more than thirty prize winners through recordings dating from 1937 and onward.
Make sure to have the loudspeakers on and start tuning in with the help of the mouse.
Have you read the book Lord of the Flies : William Golding’s first novel, “Lord of the Flies,” 1954, rapidly became a world success and has remained so. It has reached tens of millions of readers. If you are one of them you may challenge your memory with this game. If you haven’t read the book, read it and come back. It’s a very entertaining and exciting book about a group of young boys who are isolated on a desert island.
Nobel Prize Literature Nomination
1. Each year the respective committees send individual invitations to thousands of scientists, members of academies and university professors in numerous countries, asking them to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes for the coming year. Those who are competent to submit nominations are chosen in such a way that as many countries and universities as possible will be represented.
2. These prize nominations must reach the respective Nobel Committees of the Prize Awarding Institutions before February 1 of the year for which the nomination is being made.
3. The nominations received by each committee are then evaluated with the help of specially appointed experts. When the committees have made their selection among the nominated candidates and have presented their recommendations to the Prize Awarding Institutions, a vote is taken for the final choice of Laureates.
4. The choice of the year’s Laureates is announced immediately after the vote in October each year.
5. The prizes are awarded at the Prize Award Ceremony at the Concert Hall in Stockholm, Sweden, on December 10 ( the Anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death ). The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded on the same day at the City Hall in Oslo, Norway.
The procedure to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes varies somewhat among the Prize Awarding Institutions.
Excerpts from the Special Regulations on the awarding of Nobel Prizes.
Literature : ( The Swedish Academy )
The right to nominate candidates for the prize competition shall be enjoyed by members of the Swedish Academy and of other academies, institutions and societies which are similar to it in constitution and purpose; by professors of literature and of linguistics at universities and university colleges; by previous Nobel Prize Laureates for Literature and by presidents of those societies of authors that are representative of the literary production in their respective countries.