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Nobel Prize for Peace
Peace is one of the five prize areas mentioned in Alfred Nobel’s will. The will was, however, partly incomplete. Nobel simply stated that prizes be given to those who, during the preceding year, “shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind” and that one part be given to the person who “shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”
Nobel Prize Peace Laureates
1901 : H. Dunant ( Switzerland ) F. Passy ( France ).
1902 : E. Ducommun ( Switzerland ) A. Gobat ( Switzerland ).
1903 : Sir W. R. Cremer ( United Kingdom ).
1904 : Institute of International Law, Geneva.
1905 : Bertha v. Suttner ( Austria ).
1906 : Th. Roosevelt ( USA ).
1908 : K. P. Arnoldson ( Sweden ) F. Bajer ( Denmark ).
1909 : A.M.E. Beernaert ( Belgium ) Baron P. H. B. d’Estournelles de Constant ( France ).
1910 : International Bureau of Peace, Bern.
1911 : T. M. C. Asser ( Netherlands ) A. H. Fried ( Austria ).
1912 : E. Root ( USA ).
1913 : H. La Fontaine ( Belgium ).
1917 : International Committee of the Red Cross.
1919 : W. Wilson ( USA ).
1920 : L. Bourgeois ( France ).
1921 : K. H. Branting ( Sweden ) Chr. L. Lange ( Norway ).
1922 : F. Nansen ( Norway ).
1925 : Sir A. Chamberlain ( United Kingdom ) Ch. G. Dawes ( USA ).
1926 : A. Briand ( France ) G. Stresemann ( Germany ).
1927 : F. Buisson ( France ) L. Quidde ( Germany ).
1929 : F. B. Kellog ( USA ).
1930 : N. Söderblom ( Sweden ).
1931 : Jane Addams ( USA ) N.M. Butler ( USA ).
1933 : Sir N. Angell ( United Kingdom ).
1934 : A. Henderson ( United Kingdom ).
1935 : C.V. Ossietzky ( Germany ).
1936 : C. de Saavedra Lamas ( Argentina ).
1937 : Lord Cecil of Chelwood ( United Kingdom ).
1944 : International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva.
1945 : C. Hull ( USA ).
1946 : Emily G. Balch ( USA ) J. R. Mott ( USA ).
1947 : The Society of Friends ( Quakers ).
1949 : Lord J. Boyd Orr ( United Kingdom ).
1950 : R. J. Bunche ( USA ).
1951 : L. Jouhaux ( France ).
1952 : A. Schweitzer ( France ).
1953 : G. C. Marshall ( USA ).
1954 : Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva.
1957 : L. B. Pearson ( Canada ).
1958 : D. G. Pire ( Belgium ).
1959 : Ph. J. Noel – Baker ( United Kingdom ).
1960 : A. J. Luthuli ( South Africa ).
1961 : D. Hammarskjöld ( Sweden ).
1962 : L. C. Pauling ( USA, 1901 – 02 – 28 – 1994 – 08 – 19 ).
1963 : International Red Cross and International League of Red Cross Societies.
1964 : M. L. King ( USA ).
1965 : International Children’s Emergency Fund ( UNICEF ).
1968 : R. Cassin ( France ).
1969 : I. L. O. ( International Labour Organization ).
1970 : N. E. Borlaug ( USA ).
1971 : Willy Brandt ( Germany, 1913 – 12 – 18 – 1992 – 10 – 08 ).
1973 : H. Kissinger ( USA ) Le Duc Tho ( North Vietnam ).
1974 : S. MacBride ( Ireland ) E. Sato ( Japan ).
1975 : A. Sakharov ( Soviet Union ).
1976 : B. Williams, M. Corrigan ( both Northern Ireland ).
1977 : Amnesty International.
1978 : M. Begin ( Israel ) A. as Sadat ( Egypt ).
1979 : Mother Teresa ( India ).
1980 : P. Esquivel ( Argentina ).
1981 : Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva.
1982 : A. Myrdal ( Sweden ) A. Garcia Robles ( Mexico ).
1983 : Lech Walesa ( Poland ).
1984 : Desmond M. Tutu ( South Africa ).
1985 : International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War ( IPPNW ).
1986 : Elie Wiesel ( USA ).
1988 : UN Peacekeeping Forces.
1989 : Dalai Lama ( Tibet ).
1990 : Mikhail Gorbachev ( Soviet Union ).
1991 : Aung San Sun Kyi ( Burma ).
1992 : Rigoberta Menchú ( Guatemala, *1959 ).
1993 : Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ( South Africa, *1918 – 07 – 18 ) Frederik Willem de Klerk ( South Africa, *1936 – 03 – 18 ).
1994 : Yasir Arafat ( Palestine, *1929 – 08 – 27 ) Shimon Peres ( Israel, *1923 – 08 – 15 ) Itzhak Rabin ( Israel, 1922 – 03 – 01 – 1995 – 11 – 04 assassinated ).
1995 : Joseph Rotblat ( United Kingdom, *1908 ) Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms.
1996 : Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo ( bishop of East Timor ) José Ramos – Horta for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.
1997 : International Campaign to Ban Landmines ( ICBL ) and Jody Williams ( USA ).
1998 : John Hume David Trimble for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.
1999 : Doctors Without Borders ( Médecins Sans Frontières ) in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents.
2000 : Kim Dae Jung ( South Korea, *1925 ) for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular.
2001 : United Nations ( United Nations ), Kofi Annan ( Ghana ) for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world.
2002 : Jimmy Carter ( United States ) for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.
2003 : Shirin Ebadi ( Iran ) for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children.
2004 : Wangari Muta Maathai ( Kenya ) for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace.
2005 : International Atomic Energy Agency ( United Nations ), Mohamed ElBaradei ( Egypt ) for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.
2006 : Muhammad Yunus, Grameen Bank ( Bangladesh ) for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work.
2007 : Al Gore ( United States ) for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.
2008 : Martti Ahtisaari ( Finland ) or his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts.
2009 : Barack Obama ( United States ) for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples.
2010 : Liu Xiaobo ( China ) for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China.
2011 : Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee ( Liberia ), Tawakkul Karman ( Yemen ) for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work.
2012 : European Union ( Europe ) for [ having ] over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe.
2013 : Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons ( International ) for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons
Nobel Prize Peace Articles
The Nobel Peace Prize 1901 – 2000 by Geir Lundestad Read about the history of the Nobel Peace Prize during its first 100 years.
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines – A Model for Disarmament Initiatives by Jody Williams
The Mine Ban Treaty is a result of the dynamism of a grassroots movement.
Heroines of Peace, The Nine Nobel Women by Irwin Abrams The Peace Prize was awarded to only nine women between the years 1901 to 1996.
Mahatma Gandhi, The Missing Laureate by Oyvind Tønnesson The strongest symbol of non – violence in the 20th century never got the Peace Prize despite several nominations.
Reflections on the Nobel Peace Prize by Geir Lundestad Why does the world take interest in what the Norwegian Nobel Committee decides on who has done the most for peace.
From Peace Negotiations to Human Rights by Francis Sejersted The Nobel Peace Prize has succeeded in creating clear symbols which appeal to our best instincts.
The Green Revolution Revisited and the Road Ahead by Norman Borlaug 1970 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Norman Borlaug maintains that the battle to feed the poor is far from won.
Controversies and Criticism by Oyvind Tønnesson The Peace Prize awards in many instances, have increased public focus on international or national conflicts.
Fridtjof Nansen : Scientist and Humanitarian by Asle Sveen Over 400,000 prisoners – of – war were exchanged after World War I, mainly through the efforts of the Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee by oyvind Tønnesson How do five individuals from a small country make decisions over the Peace Prize on the basis of some universal interpretation of peace.
Scienceand Humanity in the Twenty – First Century by Sir Joseph Rotblat Advances in science have unfortunately, led to the development of weapons capable of annihilating the human race.
1. Each year the respective committees send individual invitations to thousands of scientists, members of academies and university professors in numerous countries, asking them to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes for the coming year. Those who are competent to submit nominations are chosen in such a way that as many countries and universities as possible will be represented.
2. These prize nominations must reach the respective Nobel Committees of the Prize Awarding Institutions before February 1 of the year for which the nomination is being made.
3. The nominations received by each committee are then evaluated with the help of specially appointed experts. When the committees have made their selection among the nominated candidates and have presented their recommendations to the Prize Awarding Institutions, a vote is taken for the final choice of Laureates.
4. The choice of the year’s Laureates is announced immediately after the vote in October each year.
5. The prizes are awarded at the Prize Award Ceremony at the Concert Hall in Stockholm, Sweden, on December 10 ( the Anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death ). The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded on the same day at the City Hall in Oslo, Norway.
The procedure to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes varies somewhat among the Prize Awarding Institutions.
Excerpts from the Special Regulations on the awarding of Nobel Prizes :
Peace ( The Norwegian Nobel Committee )
Invitations to nominate are sent to :
1. Active and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee and the advisers appointed by the Norwegian Nobel Institute;
2. Members of the national assemblies and governments of the different states and members of the Interparliamentary Union;
3. Members of the International Court of Justice at the Hague and the International Court of Arbitration at the Hague;
4. Members of the Commission of the Permanent International Peace Bureau;
5.Members and associate members of the Institute de Droit International;
6. University professors of political sciences and jurisprudence, history and philosophy;
7. Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Tune in to the Nobel Peace Radio
Since the first Nobel Prize in 1901, official Nobel Lectures have been delivered by the Peace Laureates on the occasion of the Nobel Prize ceremonies held in Oslo. Recordings have been made from some of them, or in some cases, of the acceptance speeches. Here, you can listen to twenty prize winners or representatives of the prize winning organizations, through recordings dating from 1937 – 1979. Make sure to have the loudspeakers on and start tuning in with the help of the mouse.