General Knowledge : Nobel Prize Winners : Nobel Prize Winners in India

Nobel Prize Winners in India

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is the first international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. The prize consists of a medal, a personal diploma, and a prize amount.
In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank ( Bank of Sweden ) instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.

In the beginning, more than three prize winners could share a Nobel Prize, although this was never practiced. Paragraph four of the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation was amended in 1968, restricting the number of prizewinners to only three.

Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if the nomination was made before February 1 of the same year. Since 1974, the Prize may only go to a deceased person who has been named as prize winner for the year ( usually in October ) but who dies before the Prize Awarding Ceremony on December 10.

Nobel Prize Medals

The festival day of the Nobel Foundation is on the 10th of December, the anniversary of the death of the testator. The Prize Award Ceremony for the Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature as well as for the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – takes place at the Stockholm Concert Hall. At this event, His Majesty the King of Sweden, hands each Laureate a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the Prize amount, which in 1999 will total SEK 7.9 million ( about USD 1 million ) per full Prize.The Nobel Peace Prize is presented on the same day at the Oslo City Hall by the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee in the presence of the King of Norway.General Studies Question Bank CD

The prize – awarding bodies decide the design of the diplomas. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is responsible for the Physics and Chemistry diplomas, and since 1969 also for the Economic Sciences diploma. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet is responsible for the Physiology or Medicine diploma, the Swedish Academy for the Literature diploma and the Norwegian Nobel Committee for the diploma presented to the winners of the Peace Prize. Nowadays, the “Swedish” diplomas have a uniform binding, provided by the bookbindery Falth & Hassler ( earlier Hässlers Bokbinderi ). This was not the case initially, since the various prize committees decided the artistic design of the diplomas based on their own wishes and resources. The Refsum bookbinding firm was responsible for binding the “Norwegian” diplomas until 1986, when the bookbinding firm of Kjell – Roger Josefson took over.

The artistic design of the diplomas has varied over the years ( see Register of artists ), but the text has always followed the same pattern in the Swedish and Norwegian languages, respectively. The “Swedish” diplomas largely carry the same text, stating the person or persons to whom the prize – awarding body has decided to present the year’s Prize plus a citation explaining why. The Norwegian diploma, on the other hand, has never included a Prize citation.

Nobel Prize Diplomas

According to the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation, given by the King in Council on June 29, 1900, “the prize – awarding bodies shall present to each prize – winner an assignment for the amount of the prize, a diploma, and a gold medal bearing the image of the testator and an appropriate inscription.”

The medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature were modeled by the Swedish sculptor and engraver Erik Lindberg and the Peace medal by the Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland. The medal for the Sveriges Riksbank ( Bank of Sweden ) Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( established in 1968 in connection with the 300th anniversary of the Bank of Sweden ), was designed by Gunvor Svensson – Lundqvist.

The front side of the three “Swedish” medals ( Physics and Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature) is the same, featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death in Latin – NAT – MDCCC XXXIII OB – MDCCC XCVI. Alfred Nobel’s face on the Peace medal and on the medal for the Economics Prize has different designs. The main inscription on the reverse side of all three “Swedish” Nobel Prize medals is the same: “Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes,”while the images vary according to the symbols of the respective prize – awarding institutions. The Peace medal has the inscription “Pro pace et fraternitate gentium” and the Economics medal has no quotation at all on the reverse.

Up to 1980 the “Swedish” medals, each weighing approximately 200 g and with a diameter of 66 mm, were made of 23 – karat gold. Since then they have been made of 18 – karat green gold plated with 24 – karat gold. Today the “Swedish” medals are cast by Myntverket – the Swedish Mint – in Eskilstuna and the Peace medal by Den Kongelige Mynt – the Royal Mint – in Kongsberg, Norway.

The Nobel medals have had the same design since 1902. Why not since 1901, when the first Prizes were awarded? In early 1901 the young and talented Swedish sculptor and engraver Erik Lindberg – later Professor Erik Lindberg – had been entrusted with the task of creating the three “Swedish” Nobel medals, while the Norwegian medal – the Peace medal – had been entrusted to the Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland. The designs of the reverse sides of the “Swedish” Nobel medals were not finalized in time for the first Award Ceremony in 1901. We gather from Erik Lindberg’s correspondence with his father Professor Adolf Lindberg that each of the 1901 Laureates received a “temporary” medal – a medal bearing the portrait of Alfred Nobel, cast in a baser metal – as a memento until the “real” medals were finished. The first of these medals was not completed and cast until September 1902.General Studies Question Bank CD

During the years 1901 – 1902 Erik Lindberg was living in Paris. He was influenced by modern French medal engravers of that period, such as the masters Roty, Chaplain, Tasset and Vernon. The portrait on the front of the Swedish medals was completed in time. It was reduced in October 1901 at Janvier’s in Paris and the final punching took place in Stockholm. The reason for the delay was that the symbols on the reverse of the medals had to be approved by each prize awarding institution, which was not without controversy. After lengthy discussions by letter, Erik Lindberg decided to return to Stockholm in November 1901 in order to present his ideas in person. His proposals were then all accepted, and he was finally able to produce the plaster casts for the reverse sides, which were then reduced for the final metal – stamping dies.

As Gustav Vigeland was a sculptor and not a medal engraver, Erik Lindberg was asked to make the dies for the Peace medal. His reductions were based on Vigeland’s designs.

On all “Swedish” Nobel medals the name of the Laureate is engraved fully visible on a plate on the reverse, whereas the name of the Peace Laureate as well as that of the Winner for the Economics Prize is engraved on the edge of the medal, which is less obvious. For the 1975 Economics Prize winners, the Russian Leonid Kantorovich and the American Tjalling Koopmans, this created problems. Their medals were mixed up in Stockholm, and after the Nobel Week the Prize Winners went back to their respective countries with the wrong medals. As this happened during the Cold War, it took four years of diplomatic efforts to have the medals exchanged to their rightful owners.

On December 10 at the Prize Awarding Ceremony in Stockholm, His Majesty the King hands each Laureate a diploma and a medal. The Peace Prize, i.e. diploma and medal, is presented on the same day in Oslo by the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee in the presence of the King of Norway. The Irish poet William Butler Yeates wrote the following in “The Bounty of Sweden” ( The Cuala Press, Dublin, 1925 ) after receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923 :

“All is over, and I am able to examine my medal, its charming, decorative, academic design, French in manner, a work of the nineties. It shows a young man listening to a Muse, who stands young and beautiful with a great lyre in her hand, and I think as I examine it, ‘I was good – looking once like that young man, but my unpractised verse was full of infirmity, my Muse old as it were; and now I am old and rheumatic, and nothing to look at, but my Muse is young’.”

Nobel Prize Stamps

In 1946 the first stamp portraying Alfred Nobel was released. After that a few set of stamps have commemorated institutions and buildings associated with the Nobel Prize. It was not until fifteen years later, however, that Sweden Post Stamps decided to commemorate Nobel Prize winners in a yearly edition of stamps. In 1961 the Nobel annual series was established.

Nobel Prize Amount General Studies Question Bank CD

YearNoble Prize AmountYearNoble Prize Amount
1901150,782 1921121,573
1902141,8471922122,483
1903141,3581923114,935
1904140,8591924116,719
1905138,0891925118,165
1906138,5361926116,960
1907138,7961927126,501
1908139,8001928156,939
1909139,8001929172,760
1910140,7031930172,947
1911140,6951931173,206
1912140,4761932171,753
1913143,0101933170,332
1914146,9001934162,608
1915149,2231935159,917
1916131,7931936159,850
1917133,8231937158,463
1918138,1981938155,007
1919133,1271939148,822
1920134,1001940138,570

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YearNoble Prize AmountYearNoble Prize AmountYear Noble Prize AmountYear Noble Prize Amount
1941131,4961961250,23319811,000,000200110,000,000
1942131,8911962257,22019821,150,000200210,000,000
1943123,6911963265,00019831,500,000200310,000,000
1944121,8411964273,00019841,650,000200410,000,000
1945121,3331965282,00019851,800,000200510,000,000
1946121,524 ( The Foundation is granted tax exemption )1966300,00019862,000,000200610,000,000
1947146,1151967320,00019872,175,000200710,000,000
1948159,7731968350,00019882,500,000200810,000,000
1949156,2901969375,000 ( The Prize in Economic Sciences is added )19893,000,000200910,000,000
1950164,3041970400,00019904,000,000201010,000,000
1951167,6121971450,00019916,000,000201110,000,000
1952171,1351972480,00019926,500,00020128,000,000
1953175,293 ( The Foundation's investment rules are changed )1973510,00019936,700,00020138,000,000
1954181,6471974550,00019947,000,000
1955190,2141975630,00019957,200,000
1956200,1231976681,00019967,400,000
1957208,6291977700,00019977,500,000
1958214,5591978725,00019987,600,000
1959220,6781979800,00019997,900,000
1960225,9871980880,0002000
9,000,000

 

Biography of Nobel Prize

Biography of Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel ( 1833 – 1896 ) was born in Sweden, grew up in Russia, and studied chemistry and technology in France and the United States. He invented dynamite in 1866 and built up companies and laboratories in more than 20 countries all over the world.

Alfred Nobel’s House in Paris : Forty years old and already a rich man, Nobel bought an elegant mansion – an “hôtel particulier” – at Avenue Malakoff, a fashionable quarter near the Arc de Triomphe and Bois – de – Boulogne.

Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel : The fountain head of the Nobel Prize is a one page document, written by the testator without legal aid.

War and Peace in the Thinking of Alfred Nobel : Was Alfred Nobel’s view on the effects of weapons to deter war a comfortable way of defending his own activity.

San Remo – The Final Years : In 1887, Nobel was forced to move out of France and settle down in San Remo, Italy where he spent the remaining years of his life until his death on December 10, 1896.

Aphorisms : “Contentment is the only real wealth.”

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Alfred Nobels Industrial Activities

Vinterviken : It all began in Vinterviken ( Winter Bay ), just outside Stockholm. Alfred Nobel’s first company Nitroglycerine Aktiebolaget, had its explosives plant on this isolated inlet of Lake Mälaren.

Krümmel : Nobel established his first overseas company in Krümmel, Germany where he also discovered kieselguhr, a form of hardened algae as fine as powder, that turned liquid nitroglycerine into a safer explosive.

Nobel in Scotland : Alfred Nobel turned his sights to Scotland when Great Britain proved to be a difficult place to establish an explosives factory due to its restrictive laws and bureaucratic pitfalls in the 1800s.

Sevran : The idea of transforming highly sensitive explosives into new and less hazardous forms of gunpowder, contributed to Nobel’s decision to buy the property in Sevran.

Alfred Nobel Library

The major part of Alfred Nobel’s private library was moved by stages from Paris to San Remo and, by way of different locations in Stockholm, to the present Nobel Museum at Bjorkborn Manor, near Karlskoga, Sweden Classified lists :

  • Humanities
  • Sciences
  • Miscellaneous
  • All books in alphabetical order

Books on Alfred Nobel

The list of books, chronicling the life and times of Alfred Nobel, his family, the Nobel Prizes and related literature. This initial selection includes only English ( original and translations ) versions, except for the biography of Alfred Nobel by S. Strandh in Swedish.

Alfred Nobel, A Biography – by K. Fant Arcade Publishing, New York, 1993 The author makes extensive use of Nobel’s letters and writings, in presenting a portrait of Alfred Nobel in all his aspects – industrialist, pacifist, arms manufacturer and poet.

Alfred Nobel – by T. Frangsmyr Published by the Swedish Institute, 1996 Translation by Judith Black Presents the life of Alfred Nobel, not only tracing his scientific and entrepreneurial achievements from the earliest days, but also focusing on the private individual behind them.

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Nobel The Man and His Prizes by Schuck, H. et al. Edited by the Nobel Foundation Publishers : Solhmans Förlag, Stockholm, 1950 University of Oklahoma Press, 1951 Third revised, updated and enlarged edition published by American Elsevier Company, Inc., New York, N.Y. 1972.

First published in 1950 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Nobel Foundation. Contains a summary of Alfred Nobel’s life and work; an account of the establishment of the Nobel Foundation; and surveys of outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.

The third revised edition brings the history of the awards up to 1970. It contains a sketch of Alfred Nobel’s life, an account of the initial difficulties and later development of the Nobel Foundation, and an extensively revised description of seventy years’ progress in the five Prize categories, viewing in historical perspective the work of the Nobel Laureates.

Alfred Nobel Mannen, Verket, Samtiden by Sigvard Strandh Publisher : Natur och Kultur, 1983 The author expounds on how Alfred Nobel built up his industrial empire as well as his enormous wealth, and views his inventions in the light of industrial, historical and political perspectives. The book is peopled which strong personalities – from Alfred Nobel’s brothers to his co – workers, competitors, friends and relatives.

The Russian Rockefellers The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry by R. W. Tolf Publisher : Hoover Institution Press, Stanford CA, 1976
Contains the first fully documented history of the Nobel family and the first comprehensive survey of the oil industry in pre – Bolshevik Russia.

The Nobel Century An Illustrated History of the Prizes from 1901 to the Present Introduction by A. Briggs; preface by Stig Ramel Publisher : Chapmans Publishers Ltd., London, 1991

The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution : The Science Prizes 1901 – 1915 by E. Crawford Publishers : Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris; and Cambridge University Press, 1984. The Nobel Population 1901 – 1937. A Census of the Nominators and Nominees for the Prizes in Physics and Chemistry. Edited by E. Crawford, J.L. Heilbron, R. Ullrich Publishers : Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and Office for History of Science,

The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates An Illustrated Biographical History 1901 – 1987 by I. Abrams Publisher : G.K. Hall & Co., Boston, MA, 1988

Details the evolution of the Nobel Peace Prize and delves into the role and mechanics of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, and profiles each of the eighty – seven laureates during the period 1901 – 1987. Also provides insightful evaluation of the Nobel Committee’s decision over time. Includes surveys, tables and both general and specific bibliographies.

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Alfred Nobel Museums and Exhibitions

The Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize
Title of the Centennial Exhibition : “Cultures of Creativity : The Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize”

Individual creativity will be discussed under a number of general themes, e.g. “Serendipity”, “Metaphors”, and “Iconoclasts”. The discussions will focus on important milieus of the 20th century that have produced many Nobel Laureates.

Plans to build a permanent Nobel Museum in Stockholm have been discussed since the beginning of this century. In 1994 the Nobel Foundation approached the Swedish Government about the potential for the establishment of a Nobel Museum in Stockholm devoted to science and culture. A government commissioned report recommends building at Tegelbacken near the Stockholm Central Station. The Nobel Foundation favours another location at Blasieholmen behind the National Museum of Fine Arts.

Oslo The exhibition “Cultures of Creativity : The Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize” will be on display at Norsk Folkemuseum in Oslo from the first of August 2001 until the end of that year. The Norwegian Nobel Committee and the Norwegian Government are discussing the possibility of a Nobel Peace Prize Museum in Oslo. A number of buildings have been considered.

Other Nobel Related Museums and Exhibitions Bjorkborn A Museum was instituted in 1982 at Bjorkborn Manor, Karlskoga where Alfred Nobel owned a manor and an industry during the final years of his life.

The Big Idea, Ardeer, Glasgow The Big Idea is a major permanent exhibition and tourist attraction, celebrating one thousand years of inventions and discoveries and one hundred years of Nobel Prizes.

 

Nobel Foundation

Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation : A Century of Growth and Change On June 29, 2000, the Nobel Foundation celebrates its 100th anniversary. The Foundation and especially the Nobel Prizes – which were first awarded in 1901 – are closely linked to the history of modern science, the arts, and political development throughout the 20th century.

Organizing the Nobel Festival Day – Some Recollections On this late Swedish winter afternoon, 1,700 people have just served as extras during a glittering, dignified ceremony inside the Stockholm Concert Hall. This is where the Nobel Prizes have been presented to their winners on December 10 since the late 1920s.

The Nobel Palace : Plans for a Nobel Building have been discussed since the Nobel Foundation was founded in 1901. The aim was not only to honour the donor Alfred Nobel but also to find a dignified setting for the Prize Awarding Ceremony as well as an office for the Nobel Foundation.

History of Nobel Foundation

A private institution established in 1900 based on the will of Alfred Nobel. The Foundation manages the assets made available through the will for the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace. It represents the Nobel institutions externally and administers informational activities and arrangements surrounding the presentation of the Nobel Prize. The Foundation also administers Nobel symposia in the different prize areas.

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Office of the Nobel Foundation :

Box 5232, SE – 102 45 Stockholm,
Sturegatan 14,
Phone No. : + 46 8 663 09 20,
Fax No. : + 46 8 660 38 47,

Office hours : 1st Jan – 14th June,15th Sept – 31st Dec : Monday – Friday 9.00 A.M. – 4.30 P.M. 15th June 15 – 14th Sept : Monday – Friday 9.00 A.M. – 2.30 P.M.

Nobel Foundation Board of Directors

Nobel Foundation Chairman : Samuelsson, Bengt, Professor of Medical and Physiological Chemistry at Karolinska Institutet, 1982 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Foundation Deputy Chairman : Storch, Marcus, DMed. h.c., Former President and CEO of AGA AB

Nobel Foundation Members :

  • Sohlman, Michael, Executive Director Norrby, Erling, Professor, Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
  • Engdahl, Horace, Dr, Member of the Swedish Academy
  • Wallenberg, Jacob, Chairman of SEB, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
  • Berge, Gunnar, Director General, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

Nobel Foundation Deputy Members : Andersson, Bertil, Professor, Rector of Linköping University jornvall, Hans, Professor, Secretary of the Nobel Assembly and of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine at Karolinska Institute.

Nobel Foundation Trustees

Laurent, Torvard C., MD, Professor of Medical and Physiological Chemistry at Uppsala University.

Elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences : Forsen, Sture, Professor of Physical Chemistry at Lund University. Fredga, Kerstin, Professor of Astrophysical Space Research at the Swedish National Space Board Jarlskog, Cecilia, Professor of Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics at Lund University Näslund, Bertil, Professor of Finance at the Stockholm School of Economics Engwall, Lars, Professor of Business Economics at Uppsala University.

Alternates : Mäler, Karl-Göran, Professor of Economics at the Stockholm School of Economics Martinson, Indrek, Professor of Physics at Lund University Gräslund, Astrid, Professor of Biophysics at Stockholm University Nordén, Bengt, Professor of Physical Chemistry at Chalmers University of Technology.

Elected by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute : Gustafsson, Jan-ake, Professor of Medical Nutrition at Karolinska Institute Ritzén, Martin, Professor of Pediatrics at Karolinska Institute Orrenius, Sten, Professor of Toxicology at Karolinska Institute.

Alternates : Aperia, Anita, Professor of Pediatrics at Karolinska Institute Bjorkhem, Ingemar, Professor of Biochemical Research on Atherosclerosis at Karolinska Institute

Elected by the Swedish Academy : Rudholm, Sten, Former Marshal of the Realm, Member of the Swedish Academy Sjostrand, osten, Writer, Member of the Swedish Academy Allen, Sture, Emeritus Professor of Computational Linguistics at Göteborg University, Member of the Swedish Academy.

Alternates : Malmqvist, Göran, Professor, Member of the Swedish Academy Frostenson, Katarina, Writer, Member of the Swedish Academy.

Elected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee : Stalsett, Gunnar, Bishop Rønbeck, Sissel, Deputy Director, Directorate for Cultural Heritage Ytterhorn, Inger – Marie, Senior political adviser to the Progress Party’s parliamentary group.

Alternates : Lundestad, Geir, Professor of History, University of Oslo Kvanmo, Hanna, Former Member of Parliament.

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Nobel Foundation Tasks

The Nobel Foundation is a private institution established in 1900 on the basis of the will of Alfred Nobel and the founding statutes promulgated in connection with the will.

The Foundation is entrusted with protecting the common interests of the prize – awarding bodies appointed in the will and with representing the Nobel institutions externally. This includes, for instance, informational activities and the arrangements surrounding the presentation of the Nobel Prizes.

The Foundation is represented by a Board, which has its seat in Stockholm and consists of seven members and two deputies, Swedish or Norwegian citizens, who are elected by the Trustees of the prize – awarding bodies. The Board chooses from among its own members a Chairman, a Vice – Chairman and an Executive Director. The Trustees select one of the Foundation’s auditors, who is to be an authorized public accountant, and they decide whether to discharge the members of the Board from personal liability for the preceding fiscal year. The other auditors are selected by the prize – awarding institutions, except that the Chairman is appointed by the Government.

One central task of the Foundation is to manage the assets made available through the will for awarding prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace. It shall manage these funds in such a way as to safeguard the economic base and guarantee the independence of the Prize Committees in their work of selecting prize winners.

The Foundation also administers the so – called Nobel Symposia, which are financed through its Symposium Fund.

Nobel Foundation Financial Management

On November 27, 1895, a year before his death, Alfred Nobel signed the famous will which would implement some of the goals to which he had devoted so much of his life. Nobel stipulated in his will that most of his estate, more than SEK 31 million ( today approximately SEK 1,500 million ) should be converted into a fund and invested in “safe securities.”General Studies Question Bank CD

The income from the investments was to be “distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.”

The Nobel Foundation is a private institution established in 1900 on the basis of the will. The investment policy of the Foundation is naturally of paramount importance to the preservation and, if possible the augmentation of the funds and, thus, of the prize amount. According to the original 1901 investment rules, the term “safe securities” was, in the spirit of that time, interpreted to mean gilt – edged bonds or loans backed by such securities or backed by mortgages on real estate. With the changes brought about by the two World Wars and their economic and financial aftermath, the term “safe securities” had to be reinterpreted in the light of prevailing economic conditions and tendencies. Thus, at the request of the Foundation’s Board of Directors, in the early 1950s the Swedish Government sanctioned changes, whereby the Board for all practical purposes was given a free hand to invest not only in real estate, bonds and secured loans, but also in most types of stocks.

From 1901, when the first prizes ( SEK 150,000 each ) were awarded, the prize amounts declined steadily. But with this freedom to invest, along with the long – fought – for tax – exemption granted in 1946, it was possible to reverse this trend and, on average, even keep pace with increasing inflation. The real value of the prize amount in SEK terms was finally restored in 1991. The amount of the 2000 Nobel Prize is SEK 9.0 million, an increase of 13.9 per cent compared to the 1999 Prizes.

The investment capital at market value as per December 31, 1999, amounted to SEK 3,938 million ( approx. USD 463 million ). Foreign and Swedish assets accounted for 50 per cent each of the total portfolio.

 

Nobel Museum

History of Nobel Museum

Opens April 2 : The year 2001 marks the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize. More than 700 Laureates have received this Prize for their outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace, and economics. The Nobel Foundation is commemorating this occasion with a Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize. The Exhibition is on view at the Stockholm Stock Exchange, Stortorget in Gamla Stan ( the Old Town ) until August 31, 2004.

Creativity : “What is creativity and how can creative activity best be encouraged?” “Which is more important to the creative process: the individual or the environment?” The Centennial Exhibition examines these questions by presenting selected Laureates and milieus from the 100 – year history of the Nobel Prize. The Exhibition does not specific provide answers, but gives visitors the chance to think about these questions for themselves.

The Centennial Exhibition in Duplicate : Two copies of the Exhibition are being created. The first will be exhibited in Stockholm, the second will be sent on an international tour to museums around the world, beginning with the Norsk Folkemuseum in Oslo, August 2001. The model represents the structure of the mineral zunyite, one of the structures Linus Pauling discovered. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962.

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Nobel Events

History of Nobel Events

Calendar of Events : A rundown of activities and events that make up a Nobel year.General Studies Question Bank CD

Web Camera : Follow preparations for the festivities recorded live by a web camera.

Videos : View on – demand videos of the Prize Award Ceremony and a time – lapse video of the Nobel Banquet.

The Nobel Prize Centennial : 1901 – 2001 The Nobel Foundation announces activities celebrating the 100th year of the Nobel Prize.

The Prize Award Ceremonies and the Banquets on December 10 : An academic celebration focusing on science and literature in Stockholm and another one for peace in Oslo, have become major international events.

Take Virtual Tours : The Stockholm Concert Hall. This is where the Nobel diplomas and medals are awarded to the Laureates. The City Hall of Stockholm. The Nobel Banquet with more than a thousand guests, takes place here.

Eyewitness Reports from the Festivities : Read first – hand accounts of the festivities from participants of previous years.

Photos : Browse through a selection of photographs from the Prize Award Ceremonies and the Nobel Banquets in Stockholm and Oslo.

Prize Announcements : When do the Prize Awarding Institutions announce the names of the Prize winners.

Spherical Panoramas : Get a sweeping, spherical view of the Prize Award Ceremony and the Nobel Banquet.

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Nobel Prize Winners in India – Nobel Prize Winners List – Nobel Prize Winners Name – Nobel Prize Winners History – Nobel Prize Biography – Alfred Nobel Prize

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