Important Constitutional AmendmentsGeneral Knowledge » Indian Polity »
Important Constitutional Amendments
Methods of Amendments in Constitution
3 Methods :
1. Method of Simple majority:
Applies to matters related to Citizenship, abolishing or creating second chambers in the states provisions relating to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, etc.
2. In this, the following conditions should be fulfilled :
Both the houses must pass the proposal by a majority of the total membership. By a 2/3 majority of the members present. After this, the amendment bill must also be ratified by not less than half of state legislatures. Applies to matters related to election of President and Vice – President, executive powers of union and states, subjects related to the division of legislative powers between Centre and State, matters relating to Supreme Court and High Court, representation of States in Parliament, amendment of article 368 itself, etc.
1. First Amendment 1951 : Added Ninth Schedule.
2. Seventh Amendment 1956 : Necessitated on account of reorganization of States on a linguistic basis.
3. Eighth Amendment 1959 : Extended special provisions for reservations of seats for SCs, STs and Anglo – Indians in Lok Sabha and Leg.
Assemblies for a period of 10 years from 1960 to 1970.
4. The Ninth Amendment 1960 : Gave effect to transfer certain territories to Pakistan following the 1958 Indo – Pak agreement.
5. The Tenth Amendment 1961 : Incorporated Dadra & Nagar Haveli as a UT.
6. Twelfth Amendment 1962 : Incorporated Goa, Daman & Diu as a UT.
7. Thirteenth Amendment 1962 : Created Nagaland as a State.
8. Fourteenth Amendment 1963 : Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, the former French territories were included in the schedule as UT of Pondicherry.
9. Eighteenth Amendment 1966 : Reorganized Punjab into Punjab, Haryana and UT of Chandigarh.
10. Twenty first Amendment 1967 : Included Sindhi as the Fifteenth Regional language.
11. Twenty second Amendment 1969 : Created a sub – state of Meghalaya within Assam.
12. Twenty third Amendment 1969 : Extended the reservation of seats for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo – Indians for a further period of 10 years (till 1 980).
13. Twenty sixth Amendment 1971 : Abolished the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.
14. Twenty seventh Amendment 1971 : Established Manipur and Tripura as States and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UTs.
15. Thirty first Amendment 1973 : Increased the elective strength of LS from 525 to 545.
The upper limit of representatives of States went up from 500 to 525.
16. Thirty sixth Amendments 1975 : Made Sikkim a State.
17. Thirty eighth Amendment 1975 : Provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency, and the promulgation of ordinances by the President, Governors and the Administrative Heads of UTs would be final and could not be challenged in any court.
It also authorized the President to declare different kinds of emergencies.
18. Thirty ninth Amendment 1975 : Placed beyond challenge in courts, the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of PM or Speaker and election of the President and Prime Minister.
19. Forty second Amendment 1976 : Provided supremacy of Parliament and gave primacy to Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights. It also added 10 Fundamental Duties.
New words – Socialist, Secular and Unity and Integrity of the Nation, were added in the preamble.
20. Forty fourth Amendment 1978 : The Right to Property was deleted from Part III. Article 352 was amended to provide ‘Armed Rebellion’ as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency.
21. Forty fifth Amendment 1985 : Extended reservation for SC / ST by another 10 years (till 1990).
22. Fifty second Amendment 1985 : Added the Tenth Schedule (regarding anti – defection).
23. Fifty third Amendment 1986 : Mizoram was made a state.
24. Fifty fifth Amendment 1986 : Conferred statehood to Arunachal Pradesh.
25. Fifty sixth Amendment 1987 : Hindi version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes.
The UT of Goa, Daman and Diu was divided and Goa was made a State. Daman and Diu remained as a UT.
26. Sixty first Amendment 1989 : Reduced the voting age from 21 to 1 8 years for the LS as well as Assemblies.
27. Sixty first Amendment 1989 : Also extended reservation of seats for SC / ST till 2000 AD.
28. Seventy first Amendment 1992 : Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were included in the VIII Schedule.
29. Seventy third Amendment 1993 : (Panchayati Raj Bill) Provided among other things Gram Sabha in Villages, constitution of panchayats at the village and other levels, direct elections to all seats in panchayats and reservation of seats for the SC and ST and fixing of tenure of 5 years for panchayats.
30. Seventy fourth Amendment 1993 : (Nagarpalika Bill) Provides for, among other things, constitution of three types of municipalities, reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC and ST, women and the backward classes.
Besides, the qualifying marks for passing an examination for them have also been lowered.
32. Eighty fourth Amendment 2001 : Extended freeze on Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026.
33. Eighty sixth Amendment 2002 : Makes education a fundamental right for children in the age group of 6 – 14 years.
34. Eighty seventh Amendment 2003 : Made the 2001 census the basis for delimitation of constituencies of the Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) and State assemblies (Vidhan Sabhas).
35. Ninety first Amendment 2003 : Amended the Anti – Defection Law and also made a provision that the number of ministers in the Central & State Govts, cannot be more than 15% of the strength of Lok Sabha & respected Vidhan Sabha.
36. Ninety second Amendment 2003 : Bodo, Maithili, Santhali and Dogri added into the VIII Schedule.
37. Ninety third Amendment 2005 : To reserve seats for socially and educationally backward classes, besides the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, in private unaided institutions other than those run by minorities.